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BACKGROUND Activation of central noradrenergic pathways by atypical antipsychotics has been hypothesized to play a role in their efficacy in treating the negative symptoms and cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. Because acute administration of the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine has been shown to increase extracellular levels of norepinephrine in the(More)
Naltrexone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induces hyperactivity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons, as well as a plethora of behavioral withdrawal signs. Previous research has demonstrated that an increased release of glutamate and activation of AMPA receptors, particularly in the LC, play an important role in opiate withdrawal. LY354740 is a novel Group II(More)
Previously, we have shown that the AMPA (iGluR1-4) antagonist LY293558 attenuates the morphine-withdrawal-induced activation of locus coeruleus neurons and behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal. However, LY293558 has since been shown to also have affinity for one subtype of kainate receptor (iGluR5). In this study, we examined the effects of a selective(More)
Previous research has demonstrated that mGlu2/3 agonists can decrease many behavioral signs and the activation of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons observed during morphine withdrawal. However, it is not known if mGlu2/3 receptors are activated during morphine withdrawal by endogenous glutamate. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a novel metabotropic(More)
Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain. Recent developments in the molecular biology and pharmacology of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) subtype of glutamate receptors have led to the discovery of selective, potent, and systemically active AMPA receptor potentiators. These molecules enhance synaptic(More)
Enhancement of AMPA receptor mediated synaptic excitation has the potential to aid in the treatment of several psychiatric conditions. To test such claims there is a need to develop more potent compounds than those presently available and to demonstrate that they cross the blood-brain barrier to affect responses at central AMPA receptors. We have now(More)
BACKGROUND There is a need for improved treatments for ethanol withdrawal in humans. Previously, ethanol withdrawal has been shown to enhance the acoustic startle response in rats. Because many ethanol withdrawal symptoms are caused by autonomic hyperactivity, we examined the effects of two antihypertensives, the imidazoline(I)(1) agonist moxonidine and the(More)
Transgenic mice overexpressing the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase/bovine growth hormone (PEPCK/bGH) hybrid gene and normal (nontransgenic) littermate controls (10 males + 10 females/group) were given access to tapwater and an ascending series of concentrations of ethanol (1.0-22.0%), then a similar ascending series of concentrations of nicotine (1.0-40.0(More)
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