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In four experiments the role of contrast effects in producing learned flavour preferences was examined. The experiments showed that contrast effects are pervasive in flavour preference learning, producing results that are often paradoxical from a traditional reinforcement point of view. In Experiment 1, rats preferred a reinforced flavour over a(More)
We investigated in rats whether giving a sweet substance following a food (a 'dessert') would reinforce a preference for that food. The sweet substance had the reverse effect--rats preference for a flavor decreased if the flavor was given in a food preceding a sweet substance (saccharin or sucrose). If the substances were given in the reverse order, so the(More)
In four experiments we showed that rats prefer a flavor associated with a delayed edible consequence if the delayed consequence contains calories; the greater the number of calories, the greater the preference. We obtained conditioned preferences with delayed consequences of dextrose plus quinine, 8% polycose, 8% sucrose, 10 g of high fat mash, and 14 g of(More)
Immunohistologic studies were performed on autopsy tissues of 2 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. All tissues examined--the kidney, lung, spleen, liver, intestine, peritoneum, and choroid plexus--contained immune deposits. Antinuclear antibody concentration in immunoglobulin G eluted from lung and spleen tissue was higher than in serum(More)
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