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This study offers an in-depth analysis of four rumors that spread through Twitter after the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings. Through qualitative and visual analysis, we describe each rumor's origins, changes over time, and relationships between different types of rumoring behavior. We identify several quantitative measures-including temporal progression,(More)
Rumors are regular features of crisis events due to the extreme uncertainty and lack of information that often characterizes these settings. Despite recent research that explores rumoring during crisis events on social media platforms, limited work has focused explicitly on how individuals and groups express uncertainty. Here we develop and apply a flexible(More)
Infrastructures—both technical and human—are critical components of emergency response, helping to facilitate and shape both formal work practices and the improvisational work that individuals and organizations take part in as they address emergent challenges during unpredictable events. This research explores the relationships between infrastructure and(More)
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