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Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Susceptibility to the disease is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. Genetic factors include haplotypes in the histocompatibility complex (MHC) and over 50 non-MHC loci reported by genome-wide association studies. Amongst these, we previously(More)
OBJECTIVE To perform a 1-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility and to explore functional consequences of new susceptibility loci. METHODS We synthesized 7 MS GWAS. Each data set was imputed using HapMap phase II, and a per single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) meta-analysis was performed(More)
OBJECTIVE Low past sun exposure, fair skin type, and polymorphisms of the MC1R gene have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. We aimed to investigate the interplay between melanocortin 1 receptor gene variants, red hair/fair skin phenotype, and past environmental sun exposure in MS. METHODS Population-based case-control study in Tasmania,(More)
Aging is associated with reductions in hippocampal volume that are accelerated by Alzheimer's disease and vascular risk factors. Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) of dementia-free persons (n = 9,232) identified 46 SNPs at four loci with P values of <4.0 × 10(-7). In two additional samples (n = 2,318), associations were replicated at 12q14 within(More)
In this review, the evidence for the leading environmental and lifestyle factors thought to play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS) onset, including Epstein-Barr virus, sun exposure or vitamin D, and smoking, will be discussed. The Causal Pie Model is used as a conceptual framework to understand the causation. Given that no single factor leads to the(More)
The risk for development of multiple sclerosis has been associated with human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 (HLA-DR15) genotype, low infant sibling exposure, and high Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen IgG levels. In a population-based case-control study (Tasmania, Australia), we found that the combined effect of HLA-DR15 positivity and low infant sibling(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease with a genetic component, caused at least in part by aberrant lymphocyte activity. The whole blood mRNA transcriptome was measured for 99 untreated MS patients: 43 primary progressive MS, 20 secondary progressive MS, 36 relapsing remitting MS and 45 age-matched healthy controls. The ANZgene Multiple Sclerosis(More)
Recent association studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) have identified and replicated several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) susceptibility loci including CLEC16A, IL2RA, IL7R, RPL5, CD58, CD40 and chromosome 12q13-14 in addition to the well established allele HLA-DR15. There is potential that these genetic susceptibility factors could also modulate MS(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to identify genetic contributions to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) through investigations of two quantitative components of the POAG phenotype. METHODS Genome-wide multipoint variance-components linkage analyses of maximum recorded intraocular pressure (IOP) and maximum vertical cup-to-disc ratio were conducted(More)