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A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a(More)
An optimized protocol has been developed for the efficient and rapid genetic modification of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). A polyethylene glycol-mediated DNA transformation technique could be applied to protoplast populations enriched specifically for a single totipotent cell type derived from stomatal guard cells, to achieve high transformation(More)
Terpene synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of the complex chemical defense arsenal of plants and microorganisms. How do these enzymes, which all appear to share a common terpene synthase fold, specify the many different products made almost entirely from one of only three substrates? Elucidation of the structure of 1,8-cineole synthase from(More)
Germin is a homopentameric glycoprotein, the synthesis of which coincides with the onset of growth in germinating wheat embryos. There have been detailed studies of germin structure, biosynthesis, homology with other proteins, and of its value as a marker of wheat development. Germin isoforms associated with the apoplast have been speculated to have a role(More)
Germin is a hydrogen peroxide generating oxalate oxidase with extreme thermal stability; it is involved in the defense against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. The structure, determined at 1.6 A resolution, comprises beta-jellyroll monomers locked into a homohexamer (a trimer of dimers), with extensive surface burial accounting for its remarkable(More)
The first haploid angiosperm, a dwarf form of cotton with half the normal chromosome complement, was discovered in 1920, and in the ninety years since then such plants have been identified in many other species. They can occur either spontaneously or can be induced by modified pollination methods in vivo, or by in vitro culture of immature male or female(More)
The oxalate oxidase enzyme expressed in barley roots is a thermostable, protease-resistant enzyme that generates H2O2. It has great medical importance because of its use to assay plasma and urinary oxalate, and it has also been used to generate transgenic, pathogen-resistant crops. This protein has now been purified and three types of crystals grown. X-ray(More)
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) in plants is a process by which embryos are generated directly from somatic cells, rather than from the fused products of male and female gametes. Despite the detailed expression analysis of several somatic-to-embryonic marker genes, a comprehensive understanding of SE at a molecular level is still lacking. The present study was(More)
Oxalic acid is thought to have a primary role in the pathogenicity of several plant pathogens, notably Sclerotinia selerotiorum. A gene coding for the enzyme oxalate oxidase was isolated from barley roots and introduced into oilseed rape as a means of degrading oxalic acid in vivo. This report describes the production of several transgenic plants of oilseed(More)
The cupin superfamily of proteins is among the most functionally diverse of any described to date. It was named on the basis of the conserved beta-barrel fold ('cupa' is the Latin term for a small barrel), and comprises both enzymatic and non-enzymatic members, which have either one or two cupin domains. Within the conserved tertiary structure, the variety(More)