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APL, like any programming language, interacts with various environments and individuals. How it does so and how it evolves in response to these external influences are important to the continuing health and survival of the language. It can also have a profound effect on the evolution of these same environments and individuals, since APL is a part of their(More)
At the APL90 Conference I presented a paper (<i>Programming Ecology,</i> or <i>APL and the World at Large)</i> in which I suggested that APL's future was dependent on its becoming an integral part of a wider computing environment, and in it I made a number of proposals for accomplishing this. Comparing my analysis and proposals to how both APL and its(More)
Lamination is a composition of rank expansion, or creation of new axes, catenation, and an axis operator. These components of lamination are separately defined, then the rank expansion and axis specification are recombined into a single operator, which can be applied in a consistent manner to any APL function for which an axis of application may be(More)
1. Introduction Education has long been touted as an important application area for immersive virtual environments (VEs). VEs can allow students to visualize and interact with complex three-dimensional (3D) structures, perform virtual " experiments, " view scenes with natural head and body movements, and experience environments that would be otherwise(More)
The proponents of Control Structures<sup>1</sup> claimed that adding them to APL<sup>2</sup> would improve both the organizational structure and the readability of APL code, but in my experience this has <i>not</i> occurred. Instead, I find previous obstacles to readability have often simply been supplanted by different obstacles and prior forms of(More)
There are many kinds of costs associated with the use of computers, e.g., hardware expense, programming time, and time spent waiting during execution. None of these are unique to APL. This paper identifies costs and potential savings and presents proven methods &#8212; both general and specific &#8212; for reducing each. Some techniques are specific to APL,(More)
APL still deals poorly with some aspects of real world problems. For instance, frequently to mark entries in an otherwise numeric database as &#8220;not applicable&#8221; or &#8220;not entered,&#8221; one picks arbitrarily one or more numbers to represent the attributes. But this and other approaches suffer difficulties ranging from ambiguity to(More)
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