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An important trend in operating system development is the restructuring of the traditional monolithic operating system kernel into independent servers running on top of a minimal nucleus or " microkernel ". This approach arises out of the need for modularity and flexibility in managing the ever-growing complexity caused by the introduction of new functions(More)
Interest in concurrent programming in recent years has spurred development of ''threads'', or ''lightweight processes'', as an operating system paradigm. UNIX-based systems have been especially affected by this trend because the smallest unit of CPU scheduling in UNIX, the process, is a rich and expensive software entity with a private memory address space.(More)
While various vendors and independent research groups have adapted UNIX and other operating systems for multiprocessor architectures, relatively little work has been done in anticipation of the software requirements of very large-scale shared memory machines containing thousands of processors. Programming environments for these machines must exploit(More)
Within a distributed system, resources may be shared between nodes. The system should continue to operate eveni fi ndividual nodes fail due to hardware or software errors. This may result in the loss of resources that were hosted on the failed node, but it may be possible to continue to provide access to some resources by hosting them on another node. This(More)
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