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OBJECTIVE To summarise evidence on the association between intake of dietary sugars and body weight in adults and children. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. DATA SOURCES OVID Medline, Embase, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, and Web of(More)
The Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG) of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) has issued a series of updated statements regarding the nutritional management of patients with diabetes (1-3). These have been based on the best available evidence derived from the scientific literature and the collective clinical experience of(More)
OBJECTIVE Difficulties in measuring insulin sensitivity prevent the identification of insulin-resistant individuals in the general population. Therefore, we compared fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), insulin-to-glucose ratio, Bennett index, and a score based on weighted combinations of fasting insulin, BMI, and fasting triglycerides with(More)
A diet low in saturated fatty acids and rich in wholegrains, vegetables and fruit is recommended in order to reduce the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However there is widespread interest in high-fat (“Atkins Diet”) and high-protein (“Zone Diet”) alternatives to the conventional high-carbohydrate, high-fibre approach.(More)
OBJECTIVE The extent to which lifestyle must be altered to improve insulin sensitivity has not been established. This study compares the effect on insulin sensitivity of current dietary and exercise recommendations with a more intensive intervention in normoglycemic insulin-resistant individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seventy-nine normoglycemic(More)
OBJECTIVE The study was designed to investigate the nutritional intake and haematological status of adult vegetarians. DESIGN Cross-sectional comparison of vegetarians and age/sex-matched omnivores. SETTING Free-living community subjects. SUBJECTS Fifty vegetarians were recruited by local advertisement. Each vegetarian selected their own(More)
BACKGROUND Developing effective strategies for obesity prevention in children is urgently required. OBJECTIVE We determined the effectiveness of a 2-y controlled community-based intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in 5-12-y-old children by enhancing opportunities for healthy eating and noncurricular physical activity. DESIGN Children (n = 730)(More)
We combined data from 5 prospective studies to compare the death rates from common diseases of vegetarians with those of nonvegetarians with similar lifestyles. A summary of these results was reported previously; we report here more details of the findings. Data for 76172 men and women were available. Vegetarians were those who did not eat any meat or fish(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate dietary determinants of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in health conscious individuals to explain the reduced risk in vegetarians, and to examine the relation between IHD and body mass index (BMI) within the normal range. DESIGN Prospective observation of vegetarians, semi-vegetarians, and meat eaters for whom baseline dietary(More)
In a cohort of 10 998 men and women, 95 incident cases of colorectal cancer were recorded after 17 years. Risk increased in association with smoking, alcohol, and white bread consumption, and decreased with frequent consumption of fruit. The relative risk in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.55-1.32).