Learn More
OBJECTIVE To investigate dietary determinants of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in health conscious individuals to explain the reduced risk in vegetarians, and to examine the relation between IHD and body mass index (BMI) within the normal range. DESIGN Prospective observation of vegetarians, semi-vegetarians, and meat eaters for whom baseline dietary(More)
To assess the effect of dietary reduction of plasma cholesterol concentrations on coronary atherosclerosis, we set up a randomised, controlled, end-point-blinded trial based on quantitative image analysis of coronary angiograms in patients with angina or past myocardial infarction. Another intervention group received diet and cholestyramine, to determine(More)
BACKGROUND The results of observational studies suggest that plasma homocysteine concentrations are inversely related to cognitive function in older people. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that lowering the plasma homocysteine concentration improves cognitive function in healthy older people. METHODS We conducted a two-year, double-blind,(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS A diet low in saturated fatty acids and rich in wholegrains, vegetables and fruit is recommended in order to reduce the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However there is widespread interest in high-fat ("Atkins Diet") and high-protein ("Zone Diet") alternatives to the conventional high-carbohydrate,(More)
OBJECTIVE The extent to which lifestyle must be altered to improve insulin sensitivity has not been established. This study compares the effect on insulin sensitivity of current dietary and exercise recommendations with a more intensive intervention in normoglycemic insulin-resistant individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seventy-nine normoglycemic(More)
OBJECTIVE Practical use of the glycaemic index (GI), as recommended by the FAO/WHO, requires an evaluation of the recommended method. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and sources of variation of the GI values obtained by experienced investigators in different international centres. DESIGN GI values of four centrally provided foods (instant(More)
BACKGROUND Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are associated with increased risk of vascular disease, and there is a strong inverse association between dietary and blood folate and blood tHcy concentrations. Increased folate consumption may lower the risk of tHcy-mediated cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES The objective was to(More)
BACKGROUND Developing effective strategies for obesity prevention in children is urgently required. OBJECTIVE We determined the effectiveness of a 2-y controlled community-based intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in 5-12-y-old children by enhancing opportunities for healthy eating and noncurricular physical activity. DESIGN Children (n = 730)(More)
OBJECTIVE The study was designed to investigate the nutritional intake and haematological status of adult vegetarians. DESIGN Cross-sectional comparison of vegetarians and age/sex-matched omnivores. SETTING Free-living community subjects. SUBJECTS Fifty vegetarians were recruited by local advertisement. Each vegetarian selected their own(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether substituting carbohydrate for saturated fat has any adverse effects on serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides in free-living individuals. DESIGN Randomised crossover trial. SETTING General community. SUBJECTS Volunteer sample of 38 healthy free-living men with mean (s.d.) age 37 (7) y,(More)