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Since the late 1970s, many studies have reported on the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD), and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARND). The three main types of research methods used in these studies are passive surveillance, clinic-based studies, and active case ascertainment. This article describes(More)
Researching the epidemiology and estimating the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) for mainstream populations anywhere in the world has presented a challenge to researchers. Three major approaches have been used in the past: surveillance and record review systems, clinic-based studies, and active(More)
OBJECTIVES This study determined the characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome in a South African community, and methodology was designed for the multidisciplinary study of fetal alcohol syndrome in developing societies. METHODS An active case ascertainment, 2-tier methodology was used among 992 first-grade pupils. A case-control design, using measures of(More)
OBJECTIVES The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) were determined in a third primary school cohort in a community in South Africa (SA). METHODS An active case ascertainment, two-tier screening methodology, and the revised Institute of Medicine diagnostic criteria were employed among 818(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in a second primary school cohort in a community in South Africa. METHOD Active case ascertainment, two-tier screening, and Institute of Medicine assessment methodology were employed among 857 first grade pupils, most born in 1993.(More)
OBJECTIVES We defined risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in a region with the highest documented prevalence of FAS in the world. METHODS We compared mothers of 53 first-grade students with FAS (cases) with 116 randomly selected mothers of first-grade students without FAS (controls). RESULTS Differences between case and control mothers in our(More)
Data were obtained from three samples of women of childbearing age. One sample of women is from prenatal clinics serving Plains Indian women. The second sample is of women from the Plains whose children were referred to special diagnostic developmental clinics, as their children were believed to have developmental issues consistent with prenatal alcohol(More)
BACKGROUND Previous research in South Africa revealed very high rates of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), of 46-89 per 1000 among young children. Maternal and child data from studies in this community summarize the multiple predictors of FAS and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS). METHOD Sequential regression was employed to examine influences on child(More)
OBJECTIVES This is a third exploration of risk factors for the two most severe forms of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and Partial FAS (PFAS), in a South African community with the highest reported prevalence of FAS in the world. METHODS In a case control design, interview and collateral data concerning mothers of 72(More)
OBJECTIVE Factors associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy and with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) births were examined as part of a larger epidemiologic study of FAS in a community in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. METHOD Using retrospective case-control methodology, 31 mothers who had given birth to FAS children 6 to 9 years(More)