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The oriental eyeworm, Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), infects a range of definitive hosts, such as dogs, cats, foxes, rabbits, and humans. This parasite usually lives under the nictitating membrane of the eye, where the adult females release first-stage larvae into the lachrymal secretions; these larvae are subsequently ingested by the(More)
Phase variants in colonial opacity of pneumococci differ in the ability to colonize the nasopharynx of infant rats. To explain this observation at a cellular level, we compared the ability of opacity variants to adhere to buccal epithelial cells, type II pneumocytes, or vascular endothelial cells and to the glycoconjugates that represent the cognate(More)
BACKGROUND Recent population structure studies of T. gondii revealed that a few major clonal lineages predominated in different geographical regions. T. gondii in South America is genetically and biologically divergent, whereas this parasite is remarkably clonal in North America and Europe with a few major lineages including Types I, II and III. Information(More)
The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii secretes effector molecules into the host cell to modulate host immunity. Previous studies have shown that T. gondii could interfere with host NF-κB signaling to promote their survival, but the effectors of type I strains remain unclear. The polymorphic rhoptry protein ROP18 is a key serine/threonine(More)
The present study compared the potential neuroprotective effects of tanshinone (Tan) IIA monotherapy, tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) monotherapy, and Tan IIA+TMP combination therapy in adult rat subjected to cerebral ischemic injury using the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and in primary cortical neuron culture exposed to oxygen-glucose(More)
Pork is known as one of the most important sources of Toxoplasma gondii infection in China. In the present study, 416 fresh pork samples were collected from different locations of Anhui province, Eastern China. Tissue fluid ELISA was conducted to detect the antibodies to T. gondii. Real-time PCR and bioassay were performed to identify the presence of T.(More)
BACKGROUND The hygiene hypothesis suggests that helminth infections prevent a range of autoimmune diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To investigate the effects of S. japonicum infection on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), male DBA/1 mice were challenged with unisexual or bisexual S. japonicum cercariae two weeks prior to bovine type II collagen(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that affects most species of endothermic animals including humans with a great infection rate. The vertical transmission of T. gondii causes abortion, constituting a serious threat to humans and leading to great losses in livestock production. Distinct from population structure of T. gondii in North America(More)
Interleukin (IL)-13 and alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) play an important role in liver granuloma and fibrosis of schistosomiasis. Paeoniflorin (PAE, C23H28O11) has been reported to have an anti-hepatic fibrosis effect in schistosomiasis; however, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we measured serum hyaluronic acid (HA)(More)
The aim of the present study was to explore the role of suture diameter and vessel insertion position in the preparation of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model. A total of 84 Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 250-300 g) were randomly divided to three groups: group A (type 1.0, suture diameter 0.16-0.17 mm and tip 0.21-0.22 mm); group B (type(More)