Jillian M. Carr

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The ability of dengue virus-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages to induce permeability changes in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells was investigated. Supernatants from dengue virus type 2-infected monocyte-derived macrophages increased permeability in human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers without inducing endothelial cell(More)
Macrophages are considered of central importance in cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vivo. In this report, we describe a novel cell-to-cell transmission model using HIV-infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) as donor cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) as recipients. Virus was transmitted during a(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is believed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of dengue virus (DV) infection, with elevated levels of TNF-alpha in the sera of DV-infected patients paralleling the severity of disease and TNF-alpha release being coincident with the peak of DV production from infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) in(More)
Dengue virus (DENV) pathogenesis is related to the host responses to viral infection within target cells, and therefore, this study assessed intracellular changes in host proteins following DENV infection. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identified upregulation of the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone GRP78 in K562 cells(More)
The host protein viperin is an interferon stimulated gene (ISG) that is up-regulated during a number of viral infections. In this study we have shown that dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) infection significantly induced viperin, co-incident with production of viral RNA and via a mechanism requiring retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). Viperin did not inhibit(More)
Strains of Salmonella typhimurium of predominantly Middle Eastern origin, but distributed from England to India, were found to carry at least three types of resistance plasmid. The most important was initially identified as an F(I) plasmid by compatibility tests, but differs from the F factor on the one hand and the F(I) factors R162 and ColV on the other.(More)
Reverse transcription (RTn) in HIV-infected cells occurs in a nucleoprotein complex termed the reverse transcription complex (RTC). RTCs containing RT activity and integrase (IN) were shown to be heterogeneous in size and density on sucrose velocity and equilibrium gradients. WT and Vif-deficient (Deltavif) RTCs produced by infection with virus from(More)
HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is a heterodimer composed of p66 and p51 subunits and is responsible for reverse transcription of the viral RNA genome into DNA. RT can be post-translationally modified in vitro which may be an important mechanism for regulating RT activity. Here we report detection of different p66 and p51 RT isoforms by 2D gel(More)
Although endothelial cell (EC) infection is not widespread during dengue virus (DENV) infection in vivo, the endothelium is the site of the pathogenic effects seen in severe DENV disease. In this study, we investigated DENV infection of primary EC and defined factors that influence infection in this cell type. Consistent with in vivo findings where EC(More)
The severity of dengue virus infection ranges from mild fever to dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. The association of disease severity with virus replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) was examined for dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2) isolates from Asia or America. Additionally, we constructed DEN-2 recombinant viruses with substitutions(More)