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BACKGROUND Individuals who are small at birth are at increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in later life. One hypothesis to explain this association is fetal adaptation to a suboptimum intrauterine environment. We investigated whether pregnancy complications associated with low birthweight are related to risk of subsequent IHD in the mother. (More)
OBJECTIVE Obesity is associated with impaired overall health-related quality of life but individual studies suggest the relationship may differ for mental and physical quality of life. A systematic review using Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and ISI Web of Knowledge, and random effects meta-analysis was undertaken. DESIGN AND METHODS Studies were included in(More)
BACKGROUND The relationship between population trends in delaying childbirth and rising rates of primary cesarean delivery is unclear. The aims of the present study were (1) to characterize the association between maternal age and the outcome of labor, (2) to determine the proportion of the increase in primary cesarean rates that could be attributed to(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested a reduction in the total number of hospital admissions for acute coronary syndrome after the enactment of legislation banning smoking in public places. However, it is unknown whether the reduction in admissions involved nonsmokers, smokers, or both. METHODS Since the end of March 2006, smoking has been prohibited(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood obesity predisposes to adult obesity and increases the risk of many diseases. Schools provide a vehicle to deliver public health interventions to all children. METHODS Medline and Embase were used to undertake a systematic review of published studies of school-based interventions aimed at reducing the body mass index (BMI) of children(More)
Causes of the well-documented association between low levels of cognitive functioning and many adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes, poorer physical health and earlier death remain unknown. We used linkage disequilibrium regression and polygenic profile scoring to test for shared genetic aetiology between cognitive functions and neuropsychiatric disorders and(More)
OBJECTIVES UK Biobank is a landmark cohort of over 500,000 participants which will be used to investigate genetic and non-genetic risk factors for a wide range of adverse health outcomes. This is the first study to systematically assess the prevalence and validity of proposed criteria for probable mood disorders within the cohort (major depression and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether cesarean delivery is independently associated with later subfertility. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING Maternity records kept for Scotland, 1980-1999. PATIENT(S) The study included 109,991 women who had first births between 1980 and 1984, excluding multiple or preterm births and perinatal deaths. (More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to determine the association between maternal body mass index and risk of preterm delivery. METHODS We assessed 187,290 women in Scotland and estimated adjusted odds ratios for spontaneous and elective preterm deliveries among overweight, obese, and morbidly obese women relative to normal-weight women. RESULTS Among nulliparous(More)