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SV40 has been implicated in the etiology of 40% to 60% of human mesotheliomas. These studies could have important medical implications concerning possible sources of human infection and potential therapies if human tumors are induced by this agent. We did PCR-based analysis to detect SV40 large T antigen DNA in human mesotheliomas. None of 69 tumors in(More)
BACKGROUND Hundreds of thousands of men from rural areas of South Africa and neighboring countries have come to seek work in the gold mines. They are not immigrants in the usual sense as they work for periods in the mines, go home, and then return. This is termed oscillating or circular migration. Today we have serious interrelated epidemics of silicosis,(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe causes of death and respiratory infections in HIV-infected miners in the pre-antiretroviral era, by duration of HIV infection. DESIGN A retrospective cohort of 1950 gold miners with known dates of HIV seroconversion and 6164 HIV-negative miners was followed from the early 1990s to 2002. METHODS Causes of death were available from(More)
OBJECTIVE To obtain robust estimates of survival with HIV in individuals with known dates of seroconversion in Africa in the pre-antiretroviral era. DESIGN AND METHODS Mortality rates were estimated in men from four South African gold mines in a retrospective cohort study with 10-year follow-up. HIV testing was carried out with counselling and consent, in(More)
South Africa (SA), a country in which all three commercially important asbestos minerals have been mined and milled, has retained proven cases of mesothelioma linked with environmental exposure to asbestos. This study illustrates the importance of fiber type in the occurrence of environmental mesothelioma. Four studies have reviewed the source of(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB), but no study has assessed how this risk changes with time since HIV seroconversion. METHODS The incidence of pulmonary TB was estimated in miners with and those without HIV infection in a retrospective cohort study. HIV test results were linked to(More)
A cohort of 1792 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and 2970 HIV-negative South African miners was observed for 12 months starting in February 1998. All-cause hospitalizations and deaths were significantly associated with HIV infection (respective unadjusted incidence rate ratios, 2.9 and 9.2; respective 95% confidence intervals, 2.5-3.4 and(More)
Nanoparticles are being used in ever increasing numbers in a range of industrial and medical products. Questions surrounding their potential to cause toxic effects in humans have been raised. Although animal experiments predict that nanoparticles are more toxic than their larger counterparts there are few descriptions in the literature of human exposure. A(More)
Exposure to crystalline silica dust causes multiple diseases, but silicosis and silica dust-associated tuberculosis (TB), in particular, are the two diseases that remain high on the list of occupational health priorities in low-income countries and that still occur in some high-income countries. The prevalence of silica-related TB is exacerbated by the(More)
Manganese (Mn) is a common neurotoxicant associated with a clinical syndrome that includes signs and symptoms referable to the basal ganglia. Despite many advances in understanding the pathophysiology of Mn neurotoxicity in humans, with molecular and structural imaging techniques, only a few case reports describe the associated pathological findings, and(More)