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BACKGROUND Intact frozen-thawed embryos have a greater potential than damaged embryos to establish successful pregnancies. This study aimed to determine whether elevated concentrations of sucrose during freezing would increase the proportion of patients with ≥ 50% of embryos intact after thawing (primary outcome), and improve clinical outcome. METHODS In(More)
BACKGROUND Cluster randomized trials increasingly are being used in health services research and in primary care, yet the majority of these trials do not account appropriately for the clustering in their analysis. OBJECTIVES We review the main implications of adopting a cluster randomized design in primary care and highlight the practical application of(More)
BACKGROUND Depression is an important cause of disability worldwide, with many people experiencing their first depressive episode before the age of 18. University students are particularly vulnerable to depression. Depression can be treated successfully in most patients. However, for treatment to be successful, depressed people need to recognize their(More)
BACKGROUND Community pharmacists have increasing involvement in the self-management of minor illness as a result of the availability of a wider range of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. We undertook a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of educational strategies to implement evidence-based guidelines for the sale of(More)
BACKGROUND In-vitro fertilization (IVF) is the treatment of choice for unresolved infertility. It comprises a number of key steps, each of which has to be negotiated before the next is attempted, but the factors which are associated with failure at each stage have not been reported. METHODS AND FINDINGS We analyzed anonymised national data on women(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effectiveness of clomifene citrate and unstimulated intrauterine insemination with expectant management for the treatment of unexplained infertility. DESIGN Three arm parallel group, pragmatic randomised controlled trial. SETTING Four teaching hospitals and a district general hospital in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS Couples with(More)
BACKGROUND GPs are increasingly expected to meet the needs of patients concerned about their risk of inherited breast cancer, but may lack skills or confidence to use complex management guidelines. We developed an evidence-based, multifaceted intervention intended to promote confidence and skills in this area. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of(More)
This study compared genetic nurse counsellors with standard services for breast cancer genetic risk counselling services in two regional genetics centres, in Grampian region, North East Scotland and in Cardiff, Wales. Women referred for genetic counselling were randomised to an initial genetic counselling appointment with either a genetic nurse counsellor(More)
INTRODUCTION Tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) is the most common life-threatening condition in gynaecology. tEPs with pretreatment serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels <1000 IU/L respond well to outpatient medical treatment with intramuscular methotrexate (MTX). TEPs with hCG >1000 IU/L take a significant time to resolve with MTX and require(More)
We have developed a CAL package for teaching breast cancer genetics to clinical medical students. Its aim is to explain the principles of genetic predisposition to breast cancer, the association with other cancers, the principles of family history taking and confirmation, risk assessment and possible interventions. Fourth-year clinical medical students from(More)
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