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TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) induces apoptosis in various tumor cell types and is under investigation as a cancer therapeutic. The development of a recombinant adenovirus encoding the full-length human TRAIL gene (Ad5-TRAIL) replaces the need for large quantities of soluble TRAIL protein in tumor suppressive therapies. However, the full(More)
Fetal CD34(+) CD38(+) cells have recently been found to persist in maternal peripheral blood for many years after pregnancy. CD34(+) CD38(+) cells are progenitor cells that can differentiate into mature immune-competent cells. We asked whether long-term fetal microchimerism occurs in T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, monocyte, and natural-killer cell populations(More)
Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) use in the treatment of bladder cancer was first reported in 1976, but the mechanism of the induced antitumor activity has still not been fully explained. BCG is a potent immunostimulant, normally producing a Th1 cytokine response, including IFN. Recent studies have shown CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induce(More)
Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used to treat bladder cancer for almost 30 years; however, the effector mechanism of the BCG-induced antitumor response remains enigmatic. Most BCG research has focused on the mononuclear-cell infiltrate, but growing evidence supports a role for neutrophils in the antitumor response. Previously, we(More)
CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) have broad-ranging immunostimulatory effects, including the generation of antitumor immune responses. Analysis of different CpG ODN have identified two classes: CpG-A ODN, which stimulate high levels of IFN-alpha production from plasmacytoid dendritic cells and weakly activate B cells, and CpG-B ODN, which(More)
Every year, 12,000 people in the U.S. die from renal cell carcinoma. Current therapies include partial or complete nephrectomy or treatments such as administration of IFN-alpha and/or interleukins that are moderately effective, at best. Moreover, the current therapies are invasive and inefficient and new therapies are needed. Histone deacetylase (HDAC)(More)
Intravesical administration of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) continues to be a successful immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer. Recently, workers in our laboratory observed expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on neutrophils in voided urine following BCG therapy. Neutrophils released a(More)
Metronidazole is one of a few antibiotics effective in eliminating Helicobacter pylori infection of the human stomach. Several chromosomal loci have been implicated in resistance to this drug. Saturation transposon mutagenesis of the H. pylori genome revealed inactivation of the rdxA gene as uniquely able to confer metronidazole resistance.
Patient acuity in hospital settings continues to increase, and there is greater emphasis on patient outcomes. The current nursing workforce is comprised of four distinct generational cohorts that include veterans, baby boomers, millennials, and generation Xers. Each group has unique characteristics that add complexity to the workforce and this can add(More)
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