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Histotypic migration of [3H]thymidine pulse-labeled granule cell neurons in cerebellar folium explants was monitored in the presence of antibodies to cell adhesion molecules and quantified by automatic image analysis. When explants were cultured in the presence of monovalent antibody fragments to cell adhesion molecules L1 and N-CAM, an inhibition of cell(More)
A major event of nervous system development is the migration of granule cell neurones, during the early postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex, from their germinating zone in the external granular layer to their final location in the internal granular layer. During migration, many granule cells are seen in direct cell-surface contact with processes(More)
When dietary carbohydrate is unavailable, glucose required to support metabolism in vital tissues is generated via gluconeogenesis in the liver. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), commonly considered the control point for liver gluconeogenesis, is normally regulated by circulating hormones to match systemic glucose demand. However,(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined the role of Rictor/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), a key component of the phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/mTORC2/AKT signaling pathway, in regulating both β-cell mass and function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Mice with β-cell-specific deletions of Rictor or Pten were studied to determine the effects of deleting(More)
Liver-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) null mice, when fasted, maintain normal whole body glucose kinetics but develop dramatic hepatic steatosis. To identify the abnormalities of hepatic energy generation that lead to steatosis during fasting, we studied metabolic fluxes in livers lacking hepatic cytosolic PEPCK by NMR using 2H and 13C(More)
The rapamycin-insensitive mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) has been suggested to play an important role in growth factor-dependent signaling. To explore this possibility further in a mammalian model system, we disrupted the expression of rictor, a specific component of mTORC2, in mice by using a multiallelic gene targeting strategy. Embryos that lack rictor develop(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) plays a crucial role in adipocyte differentiation, glucose metabolism, and other physiological processes. To further explore the role of PPARgamma in adipose tissues, we used a Cre/loxP strategy to generate adipose-specific PPARgamma knockout mice. These animals exhibited marked abnormalities in(More)
The ATP-sensitive potassium channel is a key molecular complex for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. In humans, mutations in either of the two subunits for this channel, the sulfonylurea type 1 receptor (Sur1) or Kir6.2, cause persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. We have generated and characterized Sur1 null(More)
To better understand how glucokinase (GK) missense mutations associated with human glycemic diseases perturb glucose homeostasis, we generated and characterized mice with either an activating (A456V) or inactivating (K414E) mutation in the gk gene. Animals with these mutations exhibited alterations in their blood glucose concentration that were inversely(More)
OBJECTIVE Several transcription factors are essential to pancreatic islet β-cell development, proliferation, and activity, including MafA and MafB. However, MafA and MafB are distinct from others in regard to temporal and islet cell expression pattern, with β-cells affected by MafB only during development and exclusively by MafA in the adult. Our aim was to(More)