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SV40 has been implicated in the etiology of 40% to 60% of human mesotheliomas. These studies could have important medical implications concerning possible sources of human infection and potential therapies if human tumors are induced by this agent. We did PCR-based analysis to detect SV40 large T antigen DNA in human mesotheliomas. None of 69 tumors in(More)
A cohort of 1792 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and 2970 HIV-negative South African miners was observed for 12 months starting in February 1998. All-cause hospitalizations and deaths were significantly associated with HIV infection (respective unadjusted incidence rate ratios, 2.9 and 9.2; respective 95% confidence intervals, 2.5-3.4 and(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe causes of death and respiratory infections in HIV-infected miners in the pre-antiretroviral era, by duration of HIV infection. DESIGN A retrospective cohort of 1950 gold miners with known dates of HIV seroconversion and 6164 HIV-negative miners was followed from the early 1990s to 2002. METHODS Causes of death were available from(More)
OBJECTIVE To obtain robust estimates of survival with HIV in individuals with known dates of seroconversion in Africa in the pre-antiretroviral era. DESIGN AND METHODS Mortality rates were estimated in men from four South African gold mines in a retrospective cohort study with 10-year follow-up. HIV testing was carried out with counselling and consent, in(More)
BACKGROUND Hundreds of thousands of men from rural areas of South Africa and neighboring countries have come to seek work in the gold mines. They are not immigrants in the usual sense as they work for periods in the mines, go home, and then return. This is termed oscillating or circular migration. Today we have serious interrelated epidemics of silicosis,(More)
Monitoring microbiological water quality is important for protecting water resources and the health of swimmers. Routine monitoring relies on cultivating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), frequently using defined substrate technology. Defined substrate technology is designed to specifically enrich for FIB, but a complete understanding of the assay(More)
Coastal urbanized areas in Southern California experience frequent beach water quality warnings in summer due to high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Remediation can be difficult, as sources are often unknown. During two summers, we sampled three urbanized watersheds in Santa Barbara, CA at sites with historically high FIB concentrations(More)
BACKGROUND The rate of recurrent tuberculosis disease due to reinfection, compared with the incidence of new tuberculosis, in those with and without HIV infection is not known. METHODS In a retrospective cohort study of South African gold miners, men with known dates of seroconversion to HIV (from 1991 to 1997) and HIV-negative men were followed up to(More)
South Africa (SA), a country in which all three commercially important asbestos minerals have been mined and milled, has retained proven cases of mesothelioma linked with environmental exposure to asbestos. This study illustrates the importance of fiber type in the occurrence of environmental mesothelioma. Four studies have reviewed the source of(More)
SETTING Silicosis leads to increased susceptibility to tuberculosis, but it has also been suggested that tuberculosis may interact with intra-pulmonary silica to exacerbate fibrotic lung disease. OBJECTIVES To investigate the possibility that silicosis developed due to or was exacerbated by tuberculosis. METHODS In a case series of 15 miners presenting(More)