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A framework for skill acquisition is proposed that includes two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill: a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowledge is directly embodied in procedures for performing the skill. This general framework has been instantiated in the(More)
A probabilistic computational level model of conditional inference is proposed that can explain polarity biases in conditional inference (e.g., J. St. B. T. Evans, 1993). These biases are observed when J. St. B. T. Evans's (1972) negations paradigm is used in the conditional inference task. The model assumes that negations define higher probability(More)
Skilled programmers, working on natural tasks, navigate large information displays with apparent ease. We present a computational cognitive model suggesting how this navigation may be achieved. We trace the model on two related episodes of behavior. In the first, the user acquires information from the display. In the second, she recalls something about the(More)
Expert reasoning combines voluminous domain-specific knowledge with mare general factual and strategic knowledge. Whereas expert system builders have recognized the need for specificity and problem-solving researchers the need far generality, few attempts have been made to develop expert reasoning engines combining different kinds of knowledge at different(More)