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Akt/PKB is a serine/threonine kinase that promotes tumor cell growth by phosphorylating transcription factors and cell cycle proteins. There is particular interest in finding tumor-specific substrates for Akt to understand how this protein functions in cancer and to provide new avenues for therapeutic targeting. Our laboratory sought to identify novel Akt(More)
Recently, chronic Aristolochia poisoning was found responsible for the aetiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) in Croatia, Serbia, and Bosnia, and diet was the likely route of exposure to aristolochic acid (AA). BEN, often associated with an increased incidence of upper urinary tract carcinoma (UUC), also affects residents of certain rural villages in(More)
Phosphorylated Akt (P-Akt) is an attractive molecular target because it contributes to the development of breast cancer and confers resistance to conventional therapies. Akt also serves as a signalling intermediate for receptors such as human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2, which is overexpressed in 30% of breast cancers; therefore, inhibitors to(More)
In this review we bring forward what is currently known about the role of type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) in mediating breast cancer invasion and metastasis. We begin by addressing how activated IGF-1R could allow pre-cancerous cells to become invasive. To this effect, we discuss clinical reports suggesting that activation of IGF-1R(More)
Approximately 50% of human tumors have a mutation in TP53. The pattern and spectra of TP53 mutations often differ between cancer types, perhaps due to different etiological factors. The Hupki (human TP53 knock-in) mouse embryo fibroblast (HUF) immortalization assay is useful for studying mutagenesis in the human TP53 gene by environmental carcinogens. Prior(More)
3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a highly mutagenic compound and possible human carcinogen found in diesel exhaust. 3-NBA forms bulky DNA adducts following metabolic activation and induces predominantly G:CT:A transversions in a variety of experimental systems. Here we investigated the influence of nucleotide excision repair (NER) on 3-NBA-induced mutagenesis(More)
The emerging paradigm of "oncogene addiction" has been called an Achilles' heel of cancer that can be exploited therapeutically. Here, we show that integrin-linked kinase (ILK), which is either activated or overexpressed in many types of cancers, is a critical regulator of breast cancer cell survival through the protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt pathway but is(More)
The tumour suppressor gene TP53 is mutated in more than 50 % of human tumours, making it one of the most important cancer genes. We have investigated the role of TP53 in cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolic activation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a panel of isogenic colorectal HCT116 cells with differing TP53 status. Cells that(More)
TP53 is one of the most commonly mutated genes in human tumours. Variations in the types and frequencies of mutations at different tumour sites suggest that they may provide clues to the identity of the causative mutagenic agent. A useful model for studying human TP53 mutagenesis is the partial human TP53 knock-in (Hupki) mouse containing exons 4-9 of human(More)
Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) expression in breast cancer is associated with relapse and a reduction in disease-specific survival. Thus, efforts are under way to identify uPA inhibitors. By screening a chemical library of >1000 compounds, 17-allyaminogeldanamycin (17AAG) was identified as a potent inhibitor of uPA by the National Cancer Institute(More)