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In recent years, systems have emerged that enable end users to " mash " together existing web services to build new web sites. However, little is known about how well end users succeed at building such mashups, or what they do if they do not succeed at their first attempt. To help fill this gap, we took a fresh look, from a debugging perspective, at the(More)
Programming has recently become more common among ordinary end users of computer systems. We believe that these end-user programmers are not just coders but also designers, in that they interlace making design decisions with coding rather than treating them as two separate phases. To better understand and provide support for the programming and design needs(More)
Recent research has begun to report that female end-user programmers are often more reluctant than males to employ features that are useful for testing and de-bugging. These earlier findings suggest that, unless such features can be changed in some appropriate way, there are likely to be important gender differences in end-user programmers' benefits from(More)
In the field of Human-Computer Interaction, provenance refers to the history and genealogy of a document or file. Provenance helps us to understand the evolution and relationships of files; how and when different versions of a document were created, or how different documents in a collection build on each other through copy-paste events. Though methods for(More)
Despite decades of research into how professional programmers debug, only recently has work emerged about how end-user programmers attempt to debug programs. Without this knowledge, we cannot build tools to adequately support their needs. This article reports the results of a detailed qualitative empirical study of end-user programmers' sensemaking about a(More)
Explaining how to play real-time strategy games. Online is checked for eligibility for copyright before being made available in the live archive. URLs from City Research Online may be freely distributed and linked to from other web pages. Enquiries If you have any enquiries about any aspect of City Research Online, or if you wish to make contact with the(More)
—How can end-user programming environments better help their users overcome programming barriers? We have been investigating an approach called Idea Gardening, which addresses this problem by helping end users to help themselves overcome barriers in the context of " doing ". In this paper, we report on a qualitative empirical study of how effectively an(More)
1. Gidget's level design mode (the Gidget character is circled). In this mode, learners design their own levels for others to solve. Players write code (left) that can include graphics (right), and see animated results (middle), and graphics for the level are on the right. Abstract—Although there are many systems designed to engage people in programming,(More)