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In the field of Human-Computer Interaction, provenance refers to the history and genealogy of a document or file. Provenance helps us to understand the evolution and relationships of files; how and when different versions of a document were created, or how different documents in a collection build on each other through copy-paste events. Though methods for(More)
Recent research has begun to report that female end-user programmers are often more reluctant than males to employ features that are useful for testing and debugging. These earlier findings suggest that, unless such features can be changed in some appropriate way, there are likely to be important gender differences in end-user programmerspsila benefits from(More)
Programming has recently become more common among ordinary end users of computer systems. We believe that these end-user programmers are not just coders but also designers, in that they interlace making design decisions with coding rather than treating them as two separate phases. To better understand and provide support for the programming and design needs(More)
Although there are many systems designed to engage people in programming, few explicitly teach the subject, expecting learners to acquire the necessary skills on their own as they create programs from scratch. We present a principled approach to teach programming using a debugging game called Gidget, which was created using a unique set of seven design(More)
In recent years, systems have emerged that enable end users to “mash” together existing web services to build new web sites. However, little is known about how well end users succeed at building such mashups, or what they do if they do not succeed at their first attempt. To help fill this gap, we took a fresh look, from a debugging(More)
How can end-user programming environments better help their users overcome programming barriers? We have been investigating an approach called Idea Gardening, which addresses this problem by helping end users to help themselves overcome barriers in the context of “doing”. In this paper, we report on a qualitative empirical study of how(More)
Research in end-user programming has seen many techniques aimed at making it easier for ordinary users to program. However, empirical studies continue to report barriers end users face. In my work, I propose an Idea Garden approach to help end users overcome barriers. Rooted in the Minimalist Learning Theory and theories in problem-solving and creativity,(More)
Despite decades of research into how professional programmers debug, only recently has work emerged about how end-user programmers attempt to debug programs. Without this knowledge, we cannot build tools to adequately support their needs. This article reports the results of a detailed qualitative empirical study of end-user programmers' sensemaking about a(More)
Despite recent advances in supporting end-user programmers, empirical studies continue to report barriers that end users experience in problem solving with programming environments. We hypothesize that an important barrier that still needs to be overcome is the lack of support for nurturing enduser programmers’ ideas on how a program should be written or on(More)