Jill B Becker

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Some people who repeatedly use stimulant drugs, such as amphetamine (AMPH), develop an AMPH-induced psychosis that is similar to paranoid schizophrenia. There has been, therefore, considerable interest in characterizing the effects of chronic stimulant drug treatment on brain and behavior in non-human animals, and in developing an animal model of AMPH(More)
Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of(More)
The nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system is sexually dimorphic. In female but not male rats, striatal DA activity is modulated by gonadal steroid hormones. Ovariectomy (OVX) decreases striatal DA release and turnover. Estrogen replacement restores the response to that of the intact female in estrus. In contrast, castration (CAST) of male rats has no effect on(More)
The experiments reported here were designed to determine if there are sex- and/or estrus cycle-dependent differences in amphetamine (AMPH)-elicited rotational behavior in unlesioned rats. Whole brain or striatal levels of AMPH produced by systemic administration of the drug were also measured. At all doses tested (1.0-10.0 mg/kg) systemic administration of(More)
Women are at greater risk for cocaine addiction than are men, and female rats similarly show a greater propensity to self-administer cocaine than do male rats. This could be due to the intrinsic sex differences in brain organization, to the activational effects of circulating gonadal hormones, or both. For example, estradiol enhances dopamine release in the(More)
Until recently, steroid hormones were believed to act only on cells containing intracellular receptors. However, recent evidence suggests that steroids have specific and rapid effects at the cellular membrane. Using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, 17 beta-estradiol was found to reduce Ba2+ entry reversibly via Ca2+ channels in acutely dissociated and(More)
Female and male brains differ. Differences begin early during development due to a combination of genetic and hormonal events and continue throughout the lifespan of an individual. Although researchers from a myriad of disciplines are beginning to appreciate the importance of considering sex differences in the design and interpretation of their studies,(More)
Dopamine in dialysate from the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) increases during sexual and feeding behavior and after administration of drugs of abuse, even those that do not directly activate dopaminergic systems (e.g., morphine or nicotine). These findings and others have led to hypotheses that propose that dopamine is rewarding, predicts that reinforcement will(More)
Experiments were conducted to examine sex differences in striatal dopamine function using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats. We report here a sex difference in basal extracellular striatal dopamine determined by quantitative microdialysis (the no net flux method) when castrated and ovariectomized rats were compared. There was no sex difference in(More)
Ovariectomy (OVX) of female rats results in a decreased behavioral response to stimulation of the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system and decreased striatal DA release in vitro. Estrogen replacement restores both behavioral and neurochemical responsiveness. In this report, microdialysis in freely moving rats is used to simultaneously study the behavioral and(More)