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Noncoding RNAs (ncRNA) participate in epigenetic regulation but are poorly understood. Here we characterize the transcriptional landscape of the four human HOX loci at five base pair resolution in 11 anatomic sites and identify 231 HOX ncRNAs that extend known transcribed regions by more than 30 kilobases. HOX ncRNAs are spatially expressed along(More)
The genome is extensively transcribed into long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs), many of which are implicated in gene silencing. Potential roles of lincRNAs in gene activation are much less understood. Development and homeostasis require coordinate regulation of neighbouring genes through a process termed locus control. Some locus control elements and(More)
Homozygous mice with a null mutation in the MMP-9/gelatinase B gene exhibit an abnormal pattern of skeletal growth plate vascularization and ossification. Although hypertrophic chondrocytes develop normally, apoptosis, vascularization, and ossification are delayed, resulting in progressive lengthening of the growth plate to about eight times normal. After 3(More)
It is generally accepted that the de-differentiation of smooth muscle cells, from the contractile to the proliferative/synthetic phenotype, has an important role during vascular remodelling and diseases. Here we provide evidence that challenges this theory. We identify a new type of stem cell in the blood vessel wall, named multipotent vascular stem cells.(More)
Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying differences in beak morphology likely involve interactions among multiple embryonic populations. We exchanged neural crest cells destined to participate in beak morphogenesis between two anatomically distinct species. Quail neural crest cells produced quail beaks in duck hosts and duck neural crest produced duck(More)
A fundamental set of patterning genes may define the global organization of the craniofacial region. One of our goals has been to identify these basic patterning genes and understand how they regulate outgrowth of the frontonasal process, which gives rise to the mid and upper face. We identified a molecular boundary in the frontonasal process ectoderm,(More)
Craniofacial tissue engineering promises the regeneration or de novo formation of dental, oral, and craniofacial structures lost to congenital anomalies, trauma, and diseases. Virtually all craniofacial structures are derivatives of mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are the offspring of mesenchymal cells following asymmetrical division, and reside(More)
We have identified the first putative integral membrane pentraxin and named it neuronal pentraxin receptor (NPR). NPR is enriched by affinity chromatography on columns of a snake venom toxin, taipoxin, and columns of the taipoxin-binding proteins neuronal pentraxin 1 (NP1), neuronal pentraxin 2 (NP2), and taipoxin-associated calcium-binding protein 49(More)
Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the CHD (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding domain) member CHD7, an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller homologous to the Drosophila trithorax-group protein Kismet, result in a complex constellation of congenital anomalies called CHARGE syndrome, which is a sporadic, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by(More)
To artists, the face is a mirror of the soul. To biologists, the face reflects remarkable structural diversity--think of bulldogs and wolfhounds or galapagos finches. How do such variations in skeletal form arise? Do the same mechanisms control skeletogenesis elsewhere in the body? The answers lie in the molecular machinery that generates neural crest(More)