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BACKGROUND Foxp3 protein plays a critical role in mediating the inflammatory response and can inhibit the proinflammatory IL-23/IL-17 pathway. However, the molecular interplay of Foxp3 and the IL-23/IL-17 pathway in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains unclear. To this end, we analyzed the expression patterns of Foxp3- and IL-23/IL-17(More)
IL-23 regulates myriad processes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and is a critical mediator of the proinflammatory effects exerted by Th17 cells in many diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver damage directly through the IL-23 signaling pathway. In biopsied liver tissues from HBV-infected(More)
CD4⁺ T cells serve as master regulators of the adaptive immune response to HBV. However, CD4⁺ T-cell subsets are heterogeneous, and it remains unknown how the antiviral agents affect the different CD4⁺ T cell subtypes. To this end, the expressions of signature transcription factors and cytokines of CD4⁺ T-cell subtypes were examined in hepatitis B patients(More)
BACKGROUND The definition of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) is challenging as it relates to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Recently, the heterogeneity of human CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells has been confirmed. METHODS Three circulating CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T-cell subpopulations in chronic HBV patients were identified, and their frequencies(More)
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