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Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotency by Yamanaka factors is usually slow and inefficient and is thought to be a stochastic process. We identified a privileged somatic cell state, from which acquisition of pluripotency could occur in a nonstochastic manner. Subsets of murine hematopoietic progenitors are privileged whose progeny cells(More)
The Ten-Eleven-Translocation 2 (TET2) gene, which oxidates 5-methylcytosine in DNA to 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC), is a key tumor suppressor frequently mutated in hematopoietic malignancies. However, the molecular regulation of TET2 expression is poorly understood. We show that TET2 is under extensive microRNA (miRNA) regulation, and such TET2 targeting(More)
Genetic variations within microRNA (miRNA) binding sites can affect miRNA-mediated gene regulation, which may lead to phenotypes and diseases. We perform a transcriptome-scale analysis of genetic variants and miRNA:target interactions identified by CLASH. This analysis reveals that rare variants tend to reside in CDSs, whereas common variants tend to reside(More)
Bacterial primase is essential for DNA replication in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is also structurally distinct from eukaryotic primases, and therefore an attractive, but under-explored, target for therapeutic intervention. We applied virtual screening to discover primase inhibitors, and subsequently several commercially available analogs(More)
An elevated level of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in diabetic patients is associated with increased risk of thrombotic cardiovascular events. The underlying mechanism of how VWF expression is upregulated in diabetes mellitus is poorly understood. We now report that hyperglycemia-induced repression of microRNA-24 (miR-24) increases VWF expression and(More)
Heteroaryl isothiazolones (HITZs) are antibacterial agents that display excellent in vitro activity against Staphylococcus aureus. We recently identified a series of these compounds that show potent bactericidal activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We report here the results of in vitro resistance studies that reveal(More)
Reprogramming to pluripotency after overexpression of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC is accompanied by global genomic and epigenomic changes. Histone modification and DNA methylation states in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been shown to be highly similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, epigenetic differences still exist between iPSCs and(More)
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are often undesired targets of chemotherapies, leading to hematopoietic suppression requiring careful clinical management. Whether microRNAs control hematopoietic injury response is largely unknown. We report an in vivo gain-of-function screen and the identification of miR-150 as an inhibitor of hematopoietic recovery(More)
The activities of several tricyclic heteroaryl isothiazolones (HITZs) against an assortment of gram-positive and gram-negative clinical isolates were assessed. These compounds target bacterial DNA replication and were found to possess broad-spectrum activities especially against gram-positive strains, including antibiotic-resistant staphylococci and(More)
We describe the biological evaluation of isothiazoloquinolones (ITQs) having structural modifications at the 6-, 7-, and 8-positions. Addition of a methoxy substituent to C-8 effected an increase in antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and a decrease in cytotoxic activity against Hep2 cells. Removal of fluorine(More)