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We generalize the quantum prisoner's dilemma to the case where the players share a nonmaximally entangled states. We show that the game exhibits an intriguing structure as a function of the amount of entanglement with two thresholds which separate a classical region, an intermediate region, and a fully quantum region. Furthermore this quantum game is(More)
Transfer RNA (tRNA) methylation is necessary for the proper biological function of tRNA. The N(1) methylation of guanine at Position 9 (m(1)G9) of tRNA, which is widely identified in eukaryotes and archaea, was found to be catalyzed by the Trm10 family of methyltransferases (MTases). Here, we report the first crystal structures of the tRNA MTase spTrm10(More)
The human PPIL1 (peptidyl prolyl isomerase-like protein 1) is a specific component of human 35 S U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle and 45 S activated spliceosome. It is recruited by SKIP, another essential component of 45 S activated spliceosome, into spliceosome just before the catalytic step 1. It stably associates with SKIP, which also exists(More)
Intrinsically disordered proteins or protein regions play an important role in fundamental biological processes. During spliceosome activation, a large structural rearrangement occurs. The Prp19 complex and related factors are involved in the catalytic activation of the spliceosome. Recent mass spectrometric analyses have shown that Ski interaction protein(More)
The cellular responses of bacteria to superoxide stress can be used to model adaptation to severe environmental changes. Superoxide stress promotes the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have detrimental effects on cell metabolic and other physiological activities. To antagonize such effects, the cell needs to regulate a range of(More)
Rtt107 (regulator of Ty1 transposition 107; Esc4) is a DNA repair protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that can restore stalled replication forks following DNA damage. There are six BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminal) domains in Rtt107 that act as binding sites for other recruited proteins during DNA repair. Several Rtt107 binding partners have been identified,(More)
Brd2 is a transcriptional regulator and belongs to BET family, a less characterized novel class of bromodomain-containing proteins. Brd2 contains two tandem bromodomains (BD1 and BD2, 46% sequence identity) in the N-terminus and a conserved motif named ET (extra C-terminal) domain at the C-terminus that is also present in some other bromodomain proteins.(More)
Zonula occludens proteins (ZOs), including ZO1/2/3, are tight junction-associated proteins. Each of them contains three PDZ domains. It has been demonstrated that ZO1 can form either homodimers or heterodimers with ZO2 or ZO3 through the second PDZ domain. However, the underlying structural basis is not well understood. In this study, the solution structure(More)
The NSD (nuclear receptor SET domain-containing) family members, consisting of NSD1, NSD2 (MMSET/WHSC1), and NSD3 (WHSC1L1), are SET domain-containing methyltransferases and aberrant expression of each member has been implicated in multiple diseases. They have specific mono- and dimethylase activities for H3K36, whereas play nonredundant roles during(More)
Histone acetylation is a hallmark for gene transcription. As a histone acetyltransferase, MOZ (monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein) is important for HOX gene expression as well as embryo and postnatal development. In vivo, MOZ forms a tetrameric complex with other subunits, including several chromatin-binding modules with regulatory functions. Here we(More)