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This paper describes how we have used material science, physical chemistry, and some luck, to design a new thermal-sensitive liposome (the low temperature sensitive liposome (LTSL)) that responds at clinically attainable hyperthermic temperatures releasing its drug in a matter of seconds as it passes through the microvasculature of a warmed tumor. The LTSL(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the primary water channel in the mammalian brain, particularly abundant in astrocytes, whose plasma membranes normally contain high concentrations of cholesterol. Here we test the hypothesis that the water permeabilities of two naturally occurring isoforms (AQP4-M1 and AQP4-M23) depend on bilayer mechanical/structural properties(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major lipid on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a key role in bacterial resistance to hydrophobic antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) we characterized supported bilayers composed of LPSs from two bacterial chemotypes with different sensitivities to such antibiotics and(More)
The lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is critical for a number of physiological functions, and its presence in membrane microdomains (rafts) appears to be important for several of these spatially localized events. However, lipids like PIP(2) that contain polyunsaturated hydrocarbon chains are usually excluded from rafts, which are(More)
Aquaporin-0 (AQP0), the primary water channel in lens fiber cells, is critical to lens development, organization, and function. In the avascular lens there is thought to be an internal microcirculation associated with fluid movement. Although AQP0 is known to be important in fluid fluxes across membranes, the water permeability of this channel has only been(More)
Two classes of channel-forming proteins in the eye lens, the water channel aquaporin-0 (AQP-0) and the connexins Cx46 and Cx50, are preferentially located in different regions of lens plasma membranes (1,2). Because these membranes contain high concentrations of cholesterol and sphingomyelin, as well as phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine with(More)
Amphiphilic alpha-helices were formed from designed synthetic peptides comprising alanine, phenylalanine, and lysine residues. The insertion of the alpha-helical peptides into hybrid bilayers assembled on gold was studied by a variety of methods to assess the resulting structural characteristics, such as electrical resistance and molecular orientation.(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the primary water channel in glial cells of the mammalian brain, plays a critical role in water transport in the central nervous system. Previous experiments have shown that the water permeability of AQP4 depends on the cholesterol content in the lipid bilayer, but it was not clear whether changes in permeability were due to direct(More)
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