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The glutathione (GSH)-dependent antioxidant system has been demonstrated to inhibit atherosclerosis. Macrophage CD36 uptakes oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) thereby facilitating foam cell formation and development of atherosclerosis. It remains unknown if GSH can influence macrophage CD36 expression and cellular oxLDL uptake directly. Herein we(More)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis by enhancing the degradation of LDL receptor (LDLR) protein. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been shown to be atheroprotective. PPARγ can be activated by ligands and/or dephosphorylation with ERK1/2 inhibitors. The effect of(More)
Macrophage adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) plays an important role in foam cell formation and development of atherosclerosis. Tamoxifen inhibits this disease process. In the present study, we determined whether the anti-atherogenic property of tamoxifen was related to its inhibition of macrophage FABP4 expression. We initially observed that(More)
Production of interleukin (IL)-10, a major immunoregulatory cytokine, by phagocytes during clearance of apoptotic cells is critical to ensuring cellular homeostasis and suppression of autoimmunity. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms in this fundamental process. We report that IL-10 production stimulated by apoptotic cells was regulated at the(More)
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a molecule mediating free cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues to apoAI and high density lipoprotein (HDL), inhibits the formation of lipid-laden macrophage/foam cells and the development of atherosclerosis. ERK1/2 are important signaling molecules regulating cellular growth and differentiation. The ERK1/2(More)
PURPOSE The current formulation of paclitaxel contains ethanol and Cremophor EL and has been reported to cause serious adverse reactions. The purpose of the present work was to develop an improved emulsion vehicle for paclitaxel and to study the physicochemical properties of such a system. METHODS Emulsions were prepared by either microfluidization or(More)
There has been increasing interest in recent years in the drug delivery applications of tocols and their derivatives. Their biocompatibility and potential to deliver both poorly soluble and water-soluble drugs make tocols attractive as drug delivery vehicles. This review article will focus primarily on topical, oral, and parenteral drug administration using(More)
BACKGROUND Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), a receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays an important role in the bidirectional cholesterol exchange between cells and HDL particles and the atherosclerotic lesion development. Enhancement of SR-BI expression significantly reduces, whereas lack of SR-BI expression accelerates, the(More)
In addition to lowering blood lipids, clinical benefits of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A; EC 1.1.1.34) reductase inhibitors may derive from altered vascular function favoring fibrinolysis over thrombosis. We examined effects of pitavastatin (NK-104), a relatively novel and long acting statin, on expression of tissue factor (TF) in human(More)
BACKGROUND Pitavastatin (NK-104) is a novel inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis. In clinical trials, pitavastatin has been shown to significantly decrease serum LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increase HDL cholesterol. Scavenger receptor-mediated(More)