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The glutathione (GSH)-dependent antioxidant system has been demonstrated to inhibit atherosclerosis. Macrophage CD36 uptakes oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) thereby facilitating foam cell formation and development of atherosclerosis. It remains unknown if GSH can influence macrophage CD36 expression and cellular oxLDL uptake directly. Herein we(More)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis by enhancing the degradation of LDL receptor (LDLR) protein. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been shown to be atheroprotective. PPARγ can be activated by ligands and/or dephosphorylation with ERK1/2 inhibitors. The effect of(More)
Production of interleukin (IL)-10, a major immunoregulatory cytokine, by phagocytes during clearance of apoptotic cells is critical to ensuring cellular homeostasis and suppression of autoimmunity. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms in this fundamental process. We report that IL-10 production stimulated by apoptotic cells was regulated at the(More)
Development of atherosclerosis is a chronic pathological process. ApoE deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice spontaneously develop atherosclerotic lesions. However, the impact of age and sex on lesions and expression of the related genes have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we collected blood and tissue samples from normal chow fed male and female apoE(-/-)(More)
To address the growing demand of small-diameter vascular grafts for cardiovascular disease, it is necessary to develop substitutes with bio-functionalities, such as anticoagulation, rapid endothelialization, and smooth muscle regeneration. In this study, the small-diameter tubular grafts (2.2 mm) were fabricated by electrospinning of biodegradable polymer(More)
Macrophage adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) plays an important role in foam cell formation and development of atherosclerosis. Tamoxifen inhibits this disease process. In the present study, we determined whether the anti-atherogenic property of tamoxifen was related to its inhibition of macrophage FABP4 expression. We initially observed that(More)
Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) is a key mediator of intracellular transport and metabolism of fatty acids. Its expression during adipocyte differentiation is regulated through the actions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha). Macrophages also express aP2, and the(More)
BACKGROUND Pitavastatin (NK-104) is a novel inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis. In clinical trials, pitavastatin has been shown to significantly decrease serum LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increase HDL cholesterol. Scavenger receptor-mediated(More)
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a molecule mediating free cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues to apoAI and high density lipoprotein (HDL), inhibits the formation of lipid-laden macrophage/foam cells and the development of atherosclerosis. ERK1/2 are important signaling molecules regulating cellular growth and differentiation. The ERK1/2(More)
BACKGROUND Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), a receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays an important role in the bidirectional cholesterol exchange between cells and HDL particles and the atherosclerotic lesion development. Enhancement of SR-BI expression significantly reduces, whereas lack of SR-BI expression accelerates, the(More)