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Many classification techniques used for identifying spam emails, treat spam filtering as a binary classification problem That is, the incoming email is either spam or non-spam This treatment is more… Expand
Email spam filtering is typically treated as a binary classification problem that can be solved by machine learning algorithms. We argue that a three-way decision approach provides a more meaningful… Expand
A top-down, step-wise progressive computing model is presented as a mode of granular computing. Based on a multilevel granular structure, progressive computing explores a sequence of refinements from… Expand
Hierarchical problem solving, in terms of abstraction hierarchies or granular state spaces, is an effective way to structure state space for speeding up a search process. However, the problem of… Expand