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Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) have been detected in the chicken oviduct, and their survival in egg albumen at the chicken body temperature of 42 degrees C may be important in oviductal and transovarian contamination of intact shell eggs. Eight S. enteritidis and 24 S. typhimurium DT104 strains were tested for(More)
During outbreaks of infectious animal diseases, composting may be an effective method of disposing of mortalities and potentially contaminated manure. Duplicate biosecure structures containing 16 cattle (Bos taurus) mortalities (343 kg average weight) were constructed with carcasses placed on a 40-cm straw layer and overlaid with 160 cm of feedlot manure.(More)
The objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation and degradation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus during composting of infected pig carcasses as measured by virus isolation in tissue culture and by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Three FMD-infected pig carcasses were composted in a mixture of chicken(More)
The fate of the genetically modified (GM) Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 3732 RN-L11 and its transgene (lacZ insert) during composting of chicken manure was studied using plate count and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. The detection sensitivity of the nested PCR method was 165 copies of the modified gene per gram of moist compost or soil.(More)
A low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI H9N2) was administered to 3-wk-old chickens by aerosol exposure, intranasal inoculation, and by oral inoculation. Tests for virus were by in ovo assay and by real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR. The aerosol dosage was determined by aerosolizing virus into a chamber when it was empty and when it contained(More)
Composting has been used for disposal of poultry carcasses and manure following outbreaks caused by avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), but methods are needed to test for survival of the viruses in compost to ensure biosecurity. Methods developed in the present study include extracting viruses from compost and purifying viral RNA.(More)
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is resistant to many environmental stresses and often persists on farms for months. This study investigated survival of a vaccine strain of IBDV in the bursa of Fabricius and splenic tissue from experimentally infected chickens and in splenic tissue and manure that had been inoculated with the virus. The specimens(More)
During the 20th century, food animal agriculture grew from small operations, where livestock (cattle, sheep, and swine) and poultry (chickens and turkeys) had access to free range, to large operations where animals and poultry were concentrated and confined to feed lots or buildings. The quantity of manure produced by confinement animals in the United(More)
In four composting experiments, survival of avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses was assessed by virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) and by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Specimens contained in nylon mesh bags consisted of 20-g samples of chicken manure, used litter, or feed that had been(More)
The aim of this study was to determine if mobile plasmids carrying antibiotic-resistant genes could survive and be transferred in chicken manure maintained under conditions similar to those found in commercial cage layer operations and during composting. Escherichia coli J5 harboring a self-transmissible plasmid (RP4) and E. coli C600 harboring a mobile(More)