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Insulin-like growth factor-I is a neurotrophic factor and can prevent neurons from ischemic brain injury. However, the large molecular weight and metabolic effects can be problematic in its central delivery. Glycine-proline-glutamate (GPE) is the N-terminal tripeptide of insulin-like growth factor-I, which is naturally cleaved in the plasma and brain(More)
Intestinal inflammation is characterized by mucosal damage that may arise, in part, to imbalances in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of this study was to describe the effects of repeated bouts of strenuous exercise on cytokine expression in mouse intestinal lymphocytes (IL). Thirty-four female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to three(More)
Intestinal inflammation and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) may occur due to imbalances in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Long-term exercise reduces the risk for IBD. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of long-term wheel running in healthy mice on intestinal lymphocyte (IL) expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine(More)
Acute exercise in mice induces intestinal lymphocyte (IL) apoptosis. Freewheel running reduces apoptosis and forced exercise training increases splenocyte antioxidant levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of freewheel running and acute exercise on mouse IL numbers and concentrations of apoptosis and antioxidant proteins and(More)
Abnormal prion protein (PrP Sc) is highly resistant to inactivation by conventional chemical and physical means. This study was to determine if microbes from the environment could be used to degrade PrP Sc in central nervous system (CNS) tissues from scrapie positive sheep as measured by Western blot. In the first experiment, the number of microbes in CNS(More)
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