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To improve the cost-effectiveness of biomass-to-sugar conversion, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment of switchgrass was carried out at 21°C using previously determined optimum conditions (2% NaOH (w/v), 6h), and the spent alkaline liquid (black liquor) was collected and used for pretreatment of corn stover, a feedstock exhibiting a higher susceptibility(More)
Spirodela oligorrhiza, a promising duckweed identified in previous studies, was examined under different cropping conditions for nutrient recovery from swine wastewater and biomass production. To prevent algae bloom during the start-up of a duckweed system, inoculating 60% of the water surface with duckweed fronds was required. In the growing season, the(More)
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and lime (Ca(OH)(2)) were innovatively used together in this study to improve the cost-effectiveness of alkaline pretreatment of switchgrass at ambient temperature. Based on the sugar production in enzymatic hydrolysis, the best pretreatment conditions were determined as: residence time of 6h, NaOH loading of 0.10 g/g raw biomass,(More)
To improve the enzymatic digestibility of switchgrass at mild temperatures, lime pretreatment of switchgrass was explored at 50 and 21 degrees Celsius, and compared with that at 121 degrees Celsius. The effects of residence time, lime loading, and biomass washing on the sugar production efficiency were investigated. Pretreatments were evaluated based on the(More)
Bermuda grass is a promising feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol in the Southern United States. This paper presents a review of the significant amount of research on the conversion of Bermuda grass to ethanol and a brief discussion on the factors affecting the biomass production in the field. The biggest challenge of biomass conversion comes from(More)
Overcoming biomass recalcitrance to bioconversion is crucial for cellulosic biofuels commercialization. In this study, Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was genetically transformed to suppress the expression of 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL). The transgenic plants were determined to have lignin content reductions of up to 5.8%. The ratios of acid(More)
To investigate the effects of biomass feedstock and pretreatment method on the enzyme requirement during hydrolysis, swichgrass and coastal Bermuda grass pretreated using H2SO4, NaOH, and Ca(OH)2 at the optimal conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using two enzyme combinations: NS 50013 + NS 50010 and Cellic CTec + Cellic HTec. The enzyme(More)
Three switchgrass cultivars (‘Performer’, ‘BoMaster’, and ‘Colony’ switchgrass) were delignified using NaOH at varying concentrations and residence times at 121 C for improved sugar production in enzymatic hydrolysis. Because of its greater carbohydrate/lignin ratio and the more substantial lignin reduction upon alkaline attack, ‘Performer’ switchgrass gave(More)
Conventional Alamo switchgrass and its transgenic counterparts with reduced/modified lignin were subjected to dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment for improved sugar production. At 150 °C, the effects of acid concentration (0.75%, 1%, 1.25%) and residence time (5, 10, 20, 30 min) on sugar productions in pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated,(More)
Harvest regime and water depth were investigated to determine their effects on nutrient recovery from swine wastewater by a Spirodela oligorrhiza system. The results show that harvesting less duckweed at shorter intervals favored nutrient removal and total biomass production. Harvesting 20% of duckweed twice a week led to 66.3 and 109.4% higher total(More)