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BACKGROUND We undertook an epidemiological study to investigate whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine may be causally associated with autism. METHODS Children with autism born since 1979 were identified from special needs/disability registers and special schools in eight North Thames health districts, UK. Information from clinical records was(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is lengthy, toxic, expensive, and has generally poor outcomes. We undertook an individual patient data meta-analysis to assess the impact on outcomes of the type, number, and duration of drugs used to treat MDR-TB. METHODS AND FINDINGS Three recent systematic reviews were used to identify(More)
From January 1, 1995, to December 31, 1997, we reviewed records of all New York City patients who had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB); we performed insertion sequence (IS) 6110-based DNA genotyping on the isolates. Secondary genotyping was performed for low IS6110 copy band strains. Patients with identical DNA pattern strains were considered(More)
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is often successful for treatment of male infertility; over 20 000 children have been born as a result. 1 This bypassing of natural barriers to sperm selection has raised concerns about the children conceived. 2 We report a population control study of children born in the United Kingdom as a result of this treatment.(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis contact investigation identifies individuals who may be recently infected with tuberculosis and are thus at increased risk for disease. Contacts with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are offered chemoprophylaxis to prevent active disease; however, the effectiveness of this intervention is unclear as treatment completion is(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the effectiveness of the systematic default provision of smoking cessation support to all adult smokers admitted to hospital, relative to usual care. DESIGN Open, cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING Acute medical wards in one large teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS 264 patients randomised to(More)
BACKGROUND The Sept 11, 2001 (9/11) World Trade Center (WTC) disaster has been associated with several subacute and chronic health effects, but whether excess mortality after 9/11 has occurred is unknown. We tested whether excess mortality has occurred in people exposed to the WTC disaster. METHODS In this observational cohort study, deaths occurring in(More)
Behavioral problems and psychopathologies were reported in children exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks in New York City within 2-3 y post-disaster. Little is known of subsequent 9/11 related behavioral and emotional problems. We assessed risk factors for behavioral difficulties and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 489 adolescent(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify key factors associated with poor asthma control among adults in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, a longitudinal study of rescue/recovery workers and community members who were directly exposed to the 2001 WTC terrorist attacks and their aftermath. METHODS We studied incident asthma diagnosed by a physician from 12(More)
Dynamic invocation has always been a hot issue in Web services in order to take full advantage of the flexibility of services computing. One key underlying enabling technology is a self-descriptive contact between the service consumer and provider. In the SOAP-based environment, WSDL has been proven a successful description language which is widely(More)