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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Macroautophagy mediates the degradation of long-lived proteins and organelles via the de novo formation of double-membrane autophagosomes that sequester cytoplasm and deliver it to the vacuole/lysosome; however, relatively little is known about autophagosome biogenesis. Atg8, a phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated protein, was previously proposed to function(More)
Autophagy is the major degradative process for recycling cytoplasmic constituents and eliminating unnecessary organelles in eukaryotic cells. Most autophagy-related (Atg) proteins are recruited to the phagophore assembly site (PAS), a proposed site for vesicle formation during either nonspecific or specific types of autophagy. Therefore, appropriate(More)
In eukaryotic cells, autophagy mediates the degradation of cytosolic contents in response to environmental change. Genetic analyses in fungi have identified over 30 autophagy-related (ATG) genes and provide substantial insight into the molecular mechanism of this process. However, one essential issue that has not been resolved is the origin of the lipids(More)
As a lysosomal/vacuolar degradative pathway that is conserved in eukaryotic organisms, autophagy mediates the turnover of long-lived proteins and excess or aberrant organelles. The main characteristic of autophagy is the formation of a double-membrane vesicle, the autophagosome, which envelops part of the cytoplasm and delivers it to the lysosome/vacuole(More)
Mutations in the optineurin (OPTN) gene have been implicated in both familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the role of this protein in the central nervous system (CNS) and how it may contribute to ALS pathology are unclear. Here, we found that optineurin actively suppressed receptor-interacting kinase 1 (RIPK1)-dependent(More)
Mitophagy is the process of selective mitochondrial degradation via autophagy, which has an important role in mitochondrial quality control. Very little is known, however, about the molecular mechanism of mitophagy. A genome-wide yeast mutant screen for mitophagy-defective strains identified 32 mutants with a block in mitophagy, in addition to the known(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a common neurodegenerative disease of the CNS, is characterized by the loss of oligodendrocytes and demyelination. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in MS, can activate necroptosis, a necrotic cell death pathway regulated by RIPK1 and RIPK3 under caspase-8-deficient conditions. Here, we(More)
In yeast, approximately 31 autophagy-related (Atg) proteins have been identified. Most of them reside at the phagophore assembly site (PAS), although the function of the PAS mostly remains unclear. One reason for the latter is the lack of stoichiometric information regarding the Atg proteins at this site. We report the application of fluorescence microscopy(More)
Macroautophagy involves lysosomal/vacuolar elimination of long-lived proteins and entire organelles from the cytosol. The process begins with formation of a double-membrane vesicle that sequesters bulk cytoplasm, or a specific cargo destined for lysosomal/vacuolar delivery. The completed vesicle fuses with the lysosome/vacuole limiting membrane, releasing(More)