Learn More
In response to stress conditions (such as nutrient limitation or accumulation of damaged organelles) and certain pathological situations, eukaryotic cells use autophagy as a survival mechanism. During nutrient stress the main purpose of autophagy is to degrade cytoplasmic materials within the lysosome/vacuole lumen and generate an internal nutrient pool(More)
In eukaryotic cells, autophagy mediates the degradation of cytosolic contents in response to environmental change. Genetic analyses in fungi have identified over 30 autophagy-related (ATG) genes and provide substantial insight into the molecular mechanism of this process. However, one essential issue that has not been resolved is the origin of the lipids(More)
In yeast, approximately 31 autophagy-related (Atg) proteins have been identified. Most of them reside at the phagophore assembly site (PAS), although the function of the PAS mostly remains unclear. One reason for the latter is the lack of stoichiometric information regarding the Atg proteins at this site. We report the application of fluorescence microscopy(More)
Macroautophagy mediates the degradation of long-lived proteins and organelles via the de novo formation of double-membrane autophagosomes that sequester cytoplasm and deliver it to the vacuole/lysosome; however, relatively little is known about autophagosome biogenesis. Atg8, a phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated protein, was previously proposed to function(More)
Mutations in the optineurin (OPTN) gene have been implicated in both familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the role of this protein in the central nervous system (CNS) and how it may contribute to ALS pathology are unclear. Here, we found that optineurin actively suppressed receptor-interacting kinase 1 (RIPK1)-dependent(More)
Autophagy is an important intracellular catabolic mechanism involved in the removal of misfolded proteins. Atg14L, the mammalian ortholog of Atg14 in yeast and a critical regulator of autophagy, mediates the production PtdIns3P to initiate the formation of autophagosomes. However, it is not clear how Atg14L is regulated. In this study, we demonstrate that(More)
Atg8 is a ubiquitin-like protein that controls the expansion of the phagophore during autophagosome formation. It is recruited to the phagophore during the expansion stage and released upon the completion of the autophagosome. One possible model explaining the function of Atg8 is that it acts as an adaptor of a coat complex. Here, we tested the coat-adaptor(More)
We developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases(More)
Hexokinase II (HK2), a key enzyme involved in glucose metabolism, is regulated by growth factor signaling and is required for initiation and maintenance of tumors. Here we show that metabolic stress triggered by perturbation of receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 in non-acute myeloid leukemia cells sensitizes cancer cells to autophagy inhibition and leads to(More)
It recently came to the authors' attention that the tubulin loading control panels shown in Figs. 2 G and S2 F were incorrect as a result of errors introduced during figure preparation. The authors apologize for these mistakes. The conclusions of the experiments shown in these figures are not affected. A corrected version of Fig. 2 is shown below. The LC3(More)
  • 1