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A wug test study of tone sandhi patterns in Taiwanese indicates that sandhi productivity is affected by phonological opacity as well as the durational property and lexical frequency of the sandhi. Opacity outweighs phonetics and frequency as a global effect; frequency effects are evident for everyday users of the language; phonetic effects only surface for(More)
In a recent trend, modern phonological research is moving beyond the assumptions that (a) phonological patterns are invariant and exceptionless and (b) it suffices to study lexically manifested sound patterns observable from elicited data. The abandonment of assumption (a) stems from long-standing observations that many phonological patterns are variable(More)
Research on spoken word recognition in Indo-European languages often does not incorporate prosody. In Mandarin Chinese, however, lexical prosody is used extensively and has been shown to affect word processing in previous studies. The present study uses the gating paradigm to investigate the processing of the four Mandarin tones as well as the role of the(More)
Recent findings in tumor biopsies from lung adenocarcinoma patients suggest that somatic mutations in the genes encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten ras (KRAS) confer sensitivity and resistance, respectively, to EGFR inhibition. Here, we provide evidence that these genetic mutations are not sufficient to modulate the biological(More)
BACKGROUND To explore the potential role of natural-resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) gene, vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, (human leukocyte antigen, (HLA-DRB1) HLA)-DRB1 gene, and HLA-DQB1 gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) in the Chinese Kazakh population. METHODS A case-control study was performed on the Chinese(More)
Astrocytes play an important role in protecting neurons during ischemia and reperfusion in the central nervous system. Although many studies have shown that oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) can induce astrocyte apoptosis, the role of PERK/eIF2 alpha/ATF4 integrated stress response (ISR) in astrocyte apoptosis mediated by oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation(More)
A taxonomic study was carried out on strain SCSWE24(T), isolated from a seawater sample collected from the South China Sea. Cells of strain SCSWE24(T) were Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, moderately halophilic and capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite. Growth was observed at salinities from 1.5 to 4.5% and at 4-37 °C; it was unable to degrade(More)
Jenny Schneider,*,† Masaya Matsuoka,‡ Masato Takeuchi,‡ Jinlong Zhang, Yu Horiuchi,‡ Masakazu Anpo,‡ and Detlef W. Bahnemann*,† †Institut für Technische Chemie, Leibniz Universitaẗ Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, D-30167 Hannover, Germany ‡Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai Osaka 599-8531, Japan Key Lab for Advanced(More)
In this study, three upflow column reactors were compared for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process start-up time with different ferrous iron concentration in feeding. Continuous experiments indicated that the start-up time of Anammox process could be shortened from 70 to 58d in R2 (0.06mM Fe(2+)) and 50d in R3 (0.09mM Fe(2+)). The Anammox activity(More)