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Heterogeneity within pluripotent stem cell (PSC) populations is indicative of dynamic changes that occur when cells drift between different states. Although the role of metastability in PSCs is unclear, it appears to reflect heterogeneity in cell signaling. Using the Fucci cell-cycle indicator system, we show that elevated expression of developmental(More)
Thumb opposition plays a vital role in hand function. Kinematically, thumb opposition results from composite movements from multiple joints moving in multiple directions. The purpose of this study was to examine the coordination of thumb joints during opposition tasks. A total of 15 female subjects with asymptomatic hands were studied. Three-dimensional(More)
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that allows recycling of cytoplasmic organelles, such as mitochondria, to offer a bioenergetically efficient pathway for cell survival. Considerable progress has been made in characterizing mitochondrial autophagy. However, the dedicated ubiquitin E3 ligases targeting mitochondria for autophagy have(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine, regulating inflammatory and immune responses. MIF binds to cell surface receptor CD74, resulting in both rapid and sustained ERK activation. It was reported that MIF-induced rapid ERK activation requires its co-receptor CD44. But the exact mechanism underlying sustained ERK activation(More)
The auditory center in the cerebrum, the auditory cortex, consists of multiple interconnected areas. The functional role of these interconnections is poorly understood. The auditory cortex of the mustached bat consists of at least nine areas, including the frequency modulation-frequency modulation (FF) and dorsal fringe (DF) areas. The FF and DF areas(More)
Nonmonotonic intensity response neurons referred as amplitude-tuned neurons are considered to be created by high-threshold inhibition in auditory system. Very limited information, however, is available on how the inhibition works for amplitude-tuned neurons. We studied the temporal response properties of these neurons with or without iontophoresis of(More)
L-ficolin, one of lectin families, is a recently identified complement factor that initiates lectin pathway of complement. Little is known about its role in viral hepatitis. In the present study, we found that L-ficolin in serum from 103 patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV), were significantly higher than that in 150 healthy controls. We further found that(More)
The central auditory system consists of the lemniscal and nonlemniscal pathways or systems, which are anatomically and physiologically different from each other. In the thalamus, the ventral division of the medial geniculate body (MGBv) belongs to the lemniscal system, whereas its medial (MGBm) and dorsal (MGBd) divisions belong to the nonlemniscal system.(More)
Frequency is one of the fundamental parameters of sound. The frequency of an acoustic stimulus can be represented by a neural response such as spike rate, and/or first spike latency (FSL) of a given neuron. The spike rates/frequency function of most neurons changes with different acoustic amplitudes, whereas FSL/frequency function is highly stable. This(More)
Transcallosal excitation and inhibition have been theorized based on the effect of callosotomy on intractable epilepsy and dichotic listening research, respectively. We studied bilateral interaction of cortical auditory neurons and found that this interaction consisted of focused facilitation and widespread lateral inhibition. The frequency modulated(More)