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Optogenetic methods have emerged as powerful tools for dissecting neural circuit connectivity, function and dysfunction. We used a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic strategy to express the H134R variant of channelrhodopsin-2, ChR2(H134R), under the control of cell type–specific promoter elements. We performed an extensive functional(More)
Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter, and the habenulo-interpeduncular projection is a major cholinergic pathway in the brain. To study the physiological properties of cholinergic transmission in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), we used a transgenic mouse line in which the light-gated cation channel ChannelRhodopsin-2 is selectively expressed in(More)
Most sensory systems are primarily specialized to detect one sensory modality. Here we report that olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the mammalian nose can detect two distinct modalities transmitted by chemical and mechanical stimuli. As revealed by patch-clamp recordings, many OSNs respond not only to odorants, but also to mechanical stimuli delivered by(More)
In mammals, olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing a specific odorant receptor (OR) gene project with precise stereotypy onto mitral/tufted (M/T) cells in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). It remains challenging to understand how incoming olfactory signals are transformed into outputs of M/T cells. By recording from OSNs expressing mouse I7 receptor and(More)
Promyelocytic Leukemia nuclear body (PML NB) proteins mediate an intrinsic cellular host defense response against virus infections. Herpesviruses express proteins that modulate PML or PML-associated proteins by a variety of strategies, including degradation of PML or relocalization of PML NB proteins. The consequences of PML-herpesvirus interactions during(More)
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA-LP protein is important for EBV-mediated B-cell immortalization and is a potent gene-specific coactivator of the viral transcriptional activator, EBNA2. The mechanism(s) by which EBNA-LP functions as a coactivator remains an important question in the biology of EBV-induced B-cell immortalization. In this study, we found(More)
Olfactory sensory neurons expressing a common receptor gene converge onto one or a few glomeruli with stereotyped positions within the mouse main olfactory bulb (MOB), producing a map of approximately 1800 olfactory columns representing approximately 1000 odorant receptors. Here, we report that this precise olfactory map is maintained over several synapses(More)
The urokinase plasminogen activator system, which consists of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis, and it may be a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic(More)
In computer animation, the proportional-derivative (PD) controller is a common technique for tracking characters' motion. A new formulation of the PD controller-stable PD (SPD)-allows arbitrarily high gains, even at large time steps. The key is to determine joint forces and torques while taking into account the character's positions and velocities in the(More)
The mechanistic contribution of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA-LP protein to B-cell immortalization remains an enigma. However, previous studies have indicated that EBNA-LP may contribute to immortalization by enhancing EBNA2-mediated transcriptional activation of the LMP-1 gene. To gain further insight into the potential role EBNA-LP has in EBV-mediated(More)