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Optogenetic methods have emerged as powerful tools for dissecting neural circuit connectivity, function and dysfunction. We used a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic strategy to express the H134R variant of channelrhodopsin-2, ChR2(H134R), under the control of cell type–specific promoter elements. We performed an extensive functional(More)
Most sensory systems are primarily specialized to detect one sensory modality. Here we report that olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the mammalian nose can detect two distinct modalities transmitted by chemical and mechanical stimuli. As revealed by patch-clamp recordings, many OSNs respond not only to odorants, but also to mechanical stimuli delivered by(More)
In mammals, olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing a specific odorant receptor (OR) gene project with precise stereotypy onto mitral/tufted (M/T) cells in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). It remains challenging to understand how incoming olfactory signals are transformed into outputs of M/T cells. By recording from OSNs expressing mouse I7 receptor and(More)
Olfactory sensory neurons expressing a common receptor gene converge onto one or a few glomeruli with stereotyped positions within the mouse main olfactory bulb (MOB), producing a map of approximately 1800 olfactory columns representing approximately 1000 odorant receptors. Here, we report that this precise olfactory map is maintained over several synapses(More)
In computer animation, the proportional-derivative (PD) controller is a common technique for tracking characters' motion. A new formulation of the PD controller-stable PD (SPD)-allows arbitrarily high gains, even at large time steps. The key is to determine joint forces and torques while taking into account the character's positions and velocities in the(More)
Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter, and the habenulo-interpeduncular projection is a major cholinergic pathway in the brain. To study the physiological properties of cholinergic transmission in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), we used a transgenic mouse line in which the light-gated cation channel ChannelRhodopsin-2 is selectively expressed in(More)
BACKGROUND Conflicting renal effects of nesiritide have been reported in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. To answer this controversy, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the influence of nesiritide on renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. METHODS Articles were obtained from(More)
We present a general approach for simulating and controlling a human character that is riding a bicycle. The two main components of our system are offline learning and online simulation. We simulate the bicycle and the rider as an articulated rigid body system. The rider is controlled by a policy that is optimized through offline learning. We apply policy(More)
The urokinase plasminogen activator system, which consists of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis, and it may be a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic(More)
Genetic analysis in haploids provides unconventional yet powerful advantages not available in diploid organisms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, haploids can be generated through seeds by crossing a wild-type strain to a transgenic strain with altered centromeres. Here we report the development of an improved haploid inducer (HI) strain, SeedGFP-HI, that aids(More)