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Optogenetic methods have emerged as powerful tools for dissecting neural circuit connectivity, function and dysfunction. We used a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic strategy to express the H134R variant of channelrhodopsin-2, ChR2(H134R), under the control of cell type–specific promoter elements. We performed an extensive functional(More)
Most sensory systems are primarily specialized to detect one sensory modality. Here we report that olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the mammalian nose can detect two distinct modalities transmitted by chemical and mechanical stimuli. As revealed by patch-clamp recordings, many OSNs respond not only to odorants, but also to mechanical stimuli delivered by(More)
In mammals, olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing a specific odorant receptor (OR) gene project with precise stereotypy onto mitral/tufted (M/T) cells in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). It remains challenging to understand how incoming olfactory signals are transformed into outputs of M/T cells. By recording from OSNs expressing mouse I7 receptor and(More)
Olfactory sensory neurons expressing a common receptor gene converge onto one or a few glomeruli with stereotyped positions within the mouse main olfactory bulb (MOB), producing a map of approximately 1800 olfactory columns representing approximately 1000 odorant receptors. Here, we report that this precise olfactory map is maintained over several synapses(More)
Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter, and the habenulo-interpeduncular projection is a major cholinergic pathway in the brain. To study the physiological properties of cholinergic transmission in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), we used a transgenic mouse line in which the light-gated cation channel ChannelRhodopsin-2 is selectively expressed in(More)
Optogenetic methods have emerged as powerful tools for dissecting neural circuit connectivity, function, and dysfunction. We used a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) transgenic strategy to express Channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2) under the control of cell-type specific promoter elements. We provide a detailed functional characterization of the newly established(More)
In computer animation, the proportional-derivative (PD) controller is a common technique for tracking characters' motion. A new formulation of the PD controller-stable PD (SPD)-allows arbitrarily high gains, even at large time steps. The key is to determine joint forces and torques while taking into account the character's positions and velocities in the(More)
We present a general approach to creating realistic swimming behavior for a given articulated creature body. The two main components of our method are creature/fluid simulation and the optimization of the creature motion parameters. We simulate two-way coupling between the fluid and the articulated body by solving a linear system that matches acceleration(More)
We aimed to investigate whether miRNA-1908 is an oncogene in human glioblastoma and find the possible mechanism of miR-1908. We investigated the growth potentials of miRNA-1908-overexpressing SW-1783 cells in vitro and in vivo. In order to identify the target molecule of miRNA-1908, a luciferase reporter assay was performed, and the corresponding downstream(More)
We present a physically-based system to simulate and control the locomotion of soft body characters without skeletons. We use the finite element method to simulate the deformation of the soft body, and we instrument a character with muscle fibers to allow it to actively control its shape. To perform locomotion, we use a variety of intuitive controls such as(More)