Learn More
BACKGROUND Control genes, which are often referred to as housekeeping genes, are frequently used to normalise mRNA levels between different samples. However, the expression level of these genes may vary among tissues or cells and may change under certain circumstances. Thus, the selection of housekeeping genes is critical for gene expression studies. To(More)
PURPOSE Ion channel activity is involved in several basic cellular behaviors that are integral to metastasis (e.g., proliferation, motility, secretion, and invasion), although their contribution to cancer progression has largely been ignored. The purpose of this study was to investigate voltage-gated Na(+) channel (VGSC) expression and its possible role in(More)
OBJECTIVE To conduct a meta-analysis of studies assessing the effect of IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on birth defects. DESIGN Meta-analysis. SETTING Centers for reproductive care. PATIENT(S) Patients treated by IVF and/or ICSI. INTERVENTION(S) We identified all studies published by September 2011 with data related to birth defects(More)
Expanded hexanucleotide repeats in the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) gene are the most common genetic cause of ALS and frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). Here, we identify nuclear RNA foci containing the hexanucleotide expansion (GGGGCC) in patient cells, including white blood cells, fibroblasts, glia, and multiple neuronal cell types (spinal(More)
Recent genome-wide association studies showed that four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP (rs3077 and rs9277535) and HLA-DQ (rs2856718 and rs7453920) were associated with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Japanese populations. More than 75% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients are attributable to(More)
The Sludge granulation in an anaerobic reactor consists of two steps: nucleation and maturation of nuclei. Nucleation as the starting point is of particular importance. In this paper, the nucleation of flocculent sludge as seed under weak, strong and violent hydrodynamic shear conditions is studied with an original quantitative method, and then the(More)
PURPOSE Ser(167) was first identified as a major phosphorylation site of the estrogen receptor -alpha (ER) positive in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. Subsequent studies have shown that Ser(167) phosphorylation is important in the regulation of ER activity and have identified p90RSK and AKT as protein kinases that phosphorylate Ser(167). The purpose of(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter subtype 1 (GAT1), which transports extracellular GABA into presynaptic neurons, plays an important regulatory role in the function of GABAergic systems. However, the contributions of the GAT1 in regulating mental status are not fully understood. In this paper, we observed the behavioral alterations of GAT1 knockout(More)
Hexanucleotide expansions in C9ORF72 are the most frequent genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Disease mechanisms were evaluated in mice expressing C9ORF72 RNAs with up to 450 GGGGCC repeats or with one or both C9orf72 alleles inactivated. Chronic 50% reduction of C9ORF72 did not provoke disease, while its absence(More)
Phototrophic iron(II) [Fe(II)]-oxidizing bacteria are present in modern environments and evidence suggests that this metabolism was present already on early earth. We determined Fe(II) oxidation rates depending on pH, temperature, light intensity, and Fe(II) concentration for three phylogenetically different phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing strains (purple(More)