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The release of the serine proteinase tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) from cerebral cortical neurons has a neuroprotective effect in the ischemic brain. Because excitotoxicity is a basic mechanism of ischemia-induced cell death, here we investigated the effect of tPA on excitotoxin-induced neuronal death. We report that genetic overexpression of(More)
OBJECTIVE A branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-related metabolic signature is strongly associated with insulin resistance and predictive of incident diabetes and intervention outcomes. To better understand the role that this metabolite cluster plays in obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, we studied the impact of BCAA restriction in a rodent model of(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1alpha (PGC1alpha) is a promiscuous co-activator that plays a key role in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and fuel homeostasis. Emergent evidence links decreased skeletal muscle PGC1alpha activity and coincident impairments in mitochondrial performance to the development of insulin resistance(More)
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) binds and enhances phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activities. However, its physiological functions in brain have never been explored. Here we show that PIKE is important in regulating the neuronal survival and development of neocortex. During development, enhanced apoptosis is observed in the ventricular(More)
Hepatic glucose production is critical for basal brain function and survival when dietary glucose is unavailable. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) is an essential, rate-limiting enzyme that serves as a terminal gatekeeper for hepatic glucose release into the plasma. Mutations in G6Pase result in Von Gierke's disease (glycogen storage disease-1a), a(More)
The ability to sense and adapt to hypoxic conditions plays a pivotal role in neuronal survival. Hypoxia induces the release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) from cerebral cortical neurons. We found that the release of neuronal tPA or treatment with recombinant tPA promotes cell survival in cerebral cortical neurons previously exposed to hypoxic(More)
Spines are dendritic protrusions that receive most of the excitatory input in the brain. Early after the onset of cerebral ischemia dendritic spines in the peri-infarct cortex are replaced by areas of focal swelling, and their re-emergence from these varicosities is associated with neurological recovery after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Urokinase-type(More)
Homeostatic maintenance of cellular mitochondria requires a dynamic balance between fission and fusion, and controlled changes in morphology are important for processes such as apoptosis and cellular division. Interphase mitochondria have been described as an interconnected network that fragments as cells enter mitosis, and this mitotic mitochondrial(More)
Studies in animal models of cerebral ischemia indicate that besides its thrombolytic effect, treatment with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) also induces an increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in the ischemic tissue associated with the development of cerebral edema. Earlier, we had shown that the low-density lipoprotein(More)
Gluconeogenesis makes a major contribution to hepatic glucose production, a process critical for survival in mammals. In this study, we identify the p160 family member, SRC-1, as a key coordinator of the hepatic gluconeogenic program in vivo. SRC-1-null mice displayed hypoglycemia secondary to a deficit in hepatic glucose production. Selective re-expression(More)