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Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) is carried out by RISC, the RNA-induced silencing complex. RISC contains two signature components, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Argonaute family proteins. Here, we show that the multiple Argonaute proteins present in mammals are both biologically and biochemically distinct, with a single mammalian family(More)
In animals, the majority of microRNAs regulate gene expression through the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery without inducing small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-directed mRNA cleavage. Thus, the mechanisms by which microRNAs repress their targets have remained elusive. Recently, Argonaute proteins, which are key RNAi effector components, and their target mRNAs(More)
Small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) can silence target genes through several different effector mechanisms. Whereas siRNA-directed mRNA cleavage is increasingly understood, the mechanisms by which miRNAs repress protein synthesis are obscure. Recent studies have revealed the existence of specific cytoplasmic foci,(More)
Genetic, biochemical and structural studies have implicated Argonaute proteins as the catalytic core of the RNAi effector complex, RISC. Here we show that recombinant, human Argonaute2 can combine with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) to form minimal RISC that accurately cleaves substrate RNAs. Recombinant RISC shows many of the properties of RISC purified(More)
The SCF ubiquitin ligase complex regulates diverse cellular functions by ubiquitinating numerous protein substrates. Cand1, a 120 kDa HEAT repeat protein, forms a tight complex with the Cul1-Roc1 SCF catalytic core, inhibiting the assembly of the multisubunit E3 complex. The crystal structure of the Cand1-Cul1-Roc1 complex shows that Cand1 adopts a highly(More)
RISC, the RNA-induced silencing complex, uses short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or micro RNAs (miRNAs) to select its targets in a sequence-dependent manner. Key RISC components are Argonaute proteins, which contain two characteristic domains, PAZ and PIWI. PAZ is highly conserved and is found only in Argonaute proteins and Dicer. We have solved the crystal(More)
In the present study, we investigated the mode of cell response induced by D-limonene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. D-limonene treatment was found to be accompanied by intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since ROS impair cell membranes, an engineered strain with enhanced membrane biosynthesis exhibited a higher tolerance to(More)
The control of translation and mRNA degradation is an important part of the regulation of gene expression. It is now clear that small RNA molecules are common and effective modulators of gene expression in many eukaryotic cells. These small RNAs that control gene expression can be either endogenous or exogenous micro RNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs(More)
The microRNA (miRNA)-induced silencing complex (miRISC) controls gene expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism involving translational repression and/or promoting messenger RNA (mRNA) deadenylation and degradation. The GW182/TNRC6 (GW) family proteins are core components of the miRISC and are essential for miRNA function. We show that mammalian GW(More)
ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC) are important detoxification proteins and were proposed to play important roles in monoterpene resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, the transcriptional levels of typical ABC transporters of S. cerevisiae under 85 mg d-limonene/l were evaluated using real-time quantitative PCR. Only the transcriptional(More)