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Stress in early life is believed to cause cognitive and affective disorders, and to disrupt hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adolescence into adult, but it is unclear whether exposure to enriched environment (EE) can overcome these effects. Here, we reported that housing rats in cages with limited nesting/bedding materials on postnatal days 2-21 reduced(More)
SSB proteins bind to and control the accessibility of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), likely facilitated by their ability to diffuse on ssDNA. Using a hybrid single-molecule method combining fluorescence and force, we probed how proteins with large binding site sizes can migrate rapidly on DNA and how protein-protein interactions and tension may modulate the(More)
Pif1 family helicases are conserved from bacteria to humans. Here, we report a novel DNA patrolling activity which may underlie Pif1's diverse functions: a Pif1 monomer preferentially anchors itself to a 3'-tailed DNA junction and periodically reel in the 3' tail with a step size of one nucleotide, extruding a loop. This periodic patrolling activity is used(More)
The use of aptamer-fluorogen complexes is an emerging strategy for RNA imaging. Despite its promise for cellular imaging and sensing, the low fluorescence intensity of the Spinach-DFHBI RNA aptamer-fluorogen complex hampers its utility in quantitative live-cell and high-resolution imaging applications. Here we report that illumination of the(More)
The anesthetic, propofol, effectively suppresses excitatory synaptic transmission and facilitates long-term depression (LTD) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Here, we have examined whether these effects are different in the developing hippocampus. We found that propofol in suppressing whole-cell excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSC) was more(More)
Prior synaptic or cellular activity influences degree or threshold for subsequent induction of synaptic plasticity, a process known as metaplasticity. Thus, the continual synaptic activity, spontaneous miniature excitatory synaptic current (mEPSC) may correlate to the induction of long-term depression (LTD). Here, we recorded whole-cell EPSC and mEPSC(More)
The Lateral Habenula (LHb) plays an important role in emotion and cognition. Recent experiments suggest that LHb has functional interaction with the hippocampus and plays an important role in spatial learning. LHb is reciprocally connected with midbrain monoaminergic brain areas such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, the role of dopamine type 1(More)
This study developed a new purple coloured Taraxacum brevicorniculatum plant through genetic transformation using the Arabidopsis AtPAP1 gene, which overproduced anthocyanins in its vegetative tissues. Rubber-producing Taraxacum plants synthesise high-quality natural rubber (NR) in their roots and so are a promising alternative global source of this raw(More)
Six-bar linkages have been used in some prosthetic knees in the past years, but only a few publications have been written on the special functions of the mechanism as used in transfemoral prosthesis. This paper investigates the advantages of the mechanism as used in the prosthetic knee from the kinematic and dynamic points of view. Computer simulation and(More)