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SSB proteins bind to and control the accessibility of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), likely facilitated by their ability to diffuse on ssDNA. Using a hybrid single-molecule method combining fluorescence and force, we probed how proteins with large binding site sizes can migrate rapidly on DNA and how protein-protein interactions and tension may modulate the(More)
Stress in early life is believed to cause cognitive and affective disorders, and to disrupt hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adolescence into adult, but it is unclear whether exposure to enriched environment (EE) can overcome these effects. Here, we reported that housing rats in cages with limited nesting/bedding materials on postnatal days 2-21 reduced(More)
The subiculum, which is the primary target of CA1 pyramidal neurons and sending efferent fibres to many brain regions, serves as a hippocampal interface in the neural information processes between hippocampal formation and neocortex. Long-term depression (LTD) is extensively studied in the hippocampus, but not at the CA1-subicular synaptic transmission.(More)
Pif1 family helicases are conserved from bacteria to humans. Here, we report a novel DNA patrolling activity which may underlie Pif1's diverse functions: a Pif1 monomer preferentially anchors itself to a 3'-tailed DNA junction and periodically reel in the 3' tail with a step size of one nucleotide, extruding a loop. This periodic patrolling activity is used(More)
Single-stranded (ss) DNA binding (SSB) proteins play central roles in DNA replication, recombination and repair in all organisms. We previously showed that Escherichia coli (Eco) SSB, a homotetrameric bacterial SSB, undergoes not only rapid ssDNA-binding mode transitions but also one-dimensional diffusion (or migration) while remaining bound to ssDNA.(More)
Prior synaptic or cellular activity influences degree or threshold for subsequent induction of synaptic plasticity, a process known as metaplasticity. Thus, the continual synaptic activity, spontaneous miniature excitatory synaptic current (mEPSC) may correlate to the induction of long-term depression (LTD). Here, we recorded whole-cell EPSC and mEPSC(More)