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Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are strongly associated with late-onset autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 is highly expressed in immune cells and recent work points towards a link between LRRK2 and innate immunity. Here we demonstrate that stimulation of the Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) pathway by MyD88-dependent agonists in bone(More)
Macrophages acquire strikingly different properties that enable them to play key roles during the initiation, propagation, and resolution of inflammation. Classically activated (M1) macrophages produce proinflammatory mediators to combat invading pathogens and respond to tissue damage in the host, whereas regulatory macrophages (M2b) produce high levels of(More)
IKKβ {IκB [inhibitor of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)] kinase β} is required to activate the transcription factor NF-κB, but how IKKβ itself is activated in vivo is still unclear. It was found to require phosphorylation by one or more 'upstream' protein kinases in some reports, but by autophosphorylation in others. In the present study, we resolve this(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling induces the formation of Lys63-linked ubiquitin (K63-Ub) chains, which are thought to activate the 'master' protein kinase TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) by interacting with its TAK1-binding 2 (TAB2) and TAB3 subunits. Here, we report that IL-1β can also activate the TAB1-TAK1 heterodimer present in TAB2/TAB3 double knockout(More)
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