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The proteasome is the major engine of protein degradation in all eukaryotic cells. At the heart of this machine is a heterohexameric ring of AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) proteins that unfolds ubiquitylated target proteins that are concurrently translocated into a proteolytic chamber and degraded into peptides. Using cryoelectron(More)
The NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) bind conserved bacterial ligands, such as the bacterial rod protein PrgJ, and recruit NLR family CARD-containing protein 4 (NLRC4) as the inflammasome adapter to activate innate immunity. We found that the PrgJ-NAIP2-NLRC4 inflammasome is assembled into multisubunit disk-like structures through a(More)
BACKGROUND The prognostic values of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and TILs subsets in breast cancer (BC) are uncertain. METHODS A systematic literature search (MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library to August 2014) was conducted for studies which met the eligibility criteria. The primary clinical outcome was defined as(More)
Laulimalide is a cytotoxic natural product isolated from marine sponges. It is structurally distinct from taxanes. However, like paclitaxel, laulimalide binds to tubulin and enhances microtubule assembly and stabilization. It exhibits potent inhibition of cellular proliferation with IC50 values in the low nM range against numerous cancer cell lines. In(More)
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as an integral functional component of human genome and have been investigated as critical regulators in molecular biology of cancer. A recent study reported that lncRNA-UCA1 induced drug resistance in adriamycin chemotherapy. However, the contributions of lncRNAs to adriamycin resistance in cancers remain largely(More)
Weekly PCb (paclitaxel + carboplatin) in neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) for breast cancer has a high pathological complete remission (pCR) rate. The present study was to identify pCR predictive biomarkers and to test whether integrating candidate molecular biomarkers can improve the pCR predictive accuracy. Ninety-one breast cancer patients treated with(More)
Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), HER2, and Ki67 have been increasingly evaluated by core needle biopsy (CNB) and are recommended for classifying breast cancer into molecular subtypes. However, the concordance rate between CNB and open excision biopsy (OEB) has not been well documented. Patients with paired CNB and OEB samples from Oct.(More)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) occurs in approximately 10% to 25% of all patients with breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy has been reported to produce a higher pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in TNBC. If pCR is achieved, patients with TNBC had a similar survival with non-TNBC patients. The aim of our(More)
Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer, but recent advances in molecularly targeted agents against the Ras/Raf/MAPK pathway demonstrate promise as effective therapies. Despite these advances, resistance remains an issue, as illustrated recently by the clinical experience with vemurafenib. Such acquired resistance appears to be the result of(More)
Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) may contribute to the high rate of recurrence and heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the biology of hepatic CSCs remains largely undefined. Through analysis of transcriptome microarray data, we identify a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) called lncBRM, which is highly expressed in liver CSCs and HCC tumours.(More)