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Bacterial pathogens have evolved effector proteins with ubiquitin E3 ligase activities through structural mimicking. Here we report the crystal structure of the Shigella flexneri type III effector IpaH3, a member of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing bacterial E3 family. The LRR domain is structurally similar to Yersinia pestis YopM and potentially(More)
Caspase-1-mediated IL-1β production is generally controlled by two pathways. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-derived products and induce NF-κB-dependent pro-IL-1β transcription; NOD-like receptors (NLRs) assemble caspase-1-activating inflammasome complexes that sense bacterial products/danger signals. Through a targeted chemical screen, we(More)
Formic acid disrupts mitochondrial electron transport and sequentially causes cell death in mammalian ocular cells by an unidentified molecular mechanism. Here, we show that a low concentration of formic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with several morphological and biochemical changes that are typical(More)
Targeting eukaryotic proteins for deamidation modification is increasingly appreciated as a general bacterial virulence mechanism. Here, we present an atomic view of how a bacterial deamidase effector, cycle-inhibiting factor homolog in Burkholderia pseudomallei (CHBP), recognizes its host targets, ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like neural precursor cell expressed,(More)
A 400MHz on-off keying transceiver for medical implant applications is presented. The transceiver achieves ultra-low power and high sensitivity with an analog “quadratic sum” demodulation scheme, which enables the using of a low intermediate frequency and a free-running oscillator for power saving. A new current-reuse structure and an inductor-sharing(More)
APOBEC3B is a newly identified source of mutation in many cancers, including breast, head/neck, lung, bladder, cervical, and ovarian. APOBEC3B is a member of the APOBEC3 family of enzymes that deaminate DNA cytosine to produce the pro-mutagenic lesion, uracil. Several APOBEC3 family members function to restrict virus replication. For instance, APOBEC3D,(More)
A simple and general strategy for suppressing the thermal conductivity in graphene is shown. The strategy uses gold nano-particles physically deposited on graphene to continuously reduce the thermal conductivity of graphene with increasing coverage, which demonstrates the potential for practical development of graphene-based devices with tunable thermal(More)
A highly linear operational trans-conductance amplifier (OTA) with 3<sup>rd</sup>-order nonlinearity superposition technique is proposed. For achieving high linearity, a native threshold voltage NMOS working in linear region is utilized to obtain the positive 3<sup>rd</sup>-order nonlinear form to compensate the negative 3<sup>rd</sup>-order nonlinear form(More)
This paper proposes a low-power inverter-based chopper instrumentation amplifier (IA) for ECG applications. A capacitively-coupled topology with chopper is employed while a two-stage inverter-based amplifier serves as the gain stage. Pseudo resistors are introduced to stabilize the output common-mode voltage of the amplifier and an improved switch-capacitor(More)
Herein is reported a study of Co-assisted crystallographic etching of graphite in hydrogen environment at temperatures above 750 °C. Unlike nanoparticle etching of graphite surface that leaves trenches, the Co could fill the hexagonal or triangular etch-pits that progressively enlarge, before finally balling-up, leaving well-defined etched pits enclosed by(More)