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Heterotrimeric G proteins and protein kinase A (PKA) are two important transmitters that transfer signals from a wide variety of cell surface receptors to generate physiological responses. The established mechanism of PKA activation involves the activation of the Gs-cAMP pathway. Binding of cAMP to the regulatory subunit of PKA (rPKA) leads to a release and(More)
BACKGROUND ESR1 mutation has recently emerged as one of the important mechanisms involved in endocrine resistance. The incidence and clinical implication of ESR1 mutation has not been well evaluated in heavily pretreated breast cancer patients. METHODS We conducted a retrospective review of advanced breast cancer patients with tumors who underwent(More)
The present study was carried out to investigate whether sign language structure plays a role in the processing of complex words (i.e., derivational and compound words), in particular, the delay of complex word reading in deaf adolescents. Chinese deaf adolescents were found to respond faster to derivational words than to compound words for(More)
BACKGROUND Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a rare acquired bleeding disorder with an estimated incidence of 1 in 10,000 people in the general population. The association of ITP with breast cancer is an even rarer entity with very limited reports in the English literature. CASE PRESENTATION We report a case of a 51-year-old female with no(More)
Albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) is a solvent-free formulation of paclitaxel that was initially developed more than a decade ago to overcome toxicities associated with the solvents used in the formulation of standard paclitaxel and to potentially improve efficacy. Nab-paclitaxel has demonstrated an advantage over solvent-based paclitaxel by being(More)
BACKGROUND Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) has a unique pharmacokinetic profile and is widely used to treat a variety of malignancies, alone or in combination with other agents. CASE REPORT A 57-year-old female patient with metastatic breast cancer developed dural metastases to the brain and underwent craniotomy and whole-brain radiation. She(More)
BACKGROUND Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent widely used in antineoplastic and immunosuppressive therapies. Symptomatic hyponatremia can be a rare but life-threatening complication in patients treated with cyclophosphamide. CASE PRESENTATIONS We report 2 patients who presented with severe acute hyponatremic encephalopathy after receiving their first(More)
BACKGROUND Hypersplenism due to chemotherapy-related liver injury has been associated with severe thrombocytopenia that may preclude continuation of systemic therapy for cancer patients. Patients treated for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are among the most common patients affected by hypersplenism. Cessation of systemic therapy invariably leads to(More)
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