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Liver cirrhosis occurs as a consequence of many chronic liver diseases that are prevalent worldwide. Here we characterize the gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis by comparing 98 patients and 83 healthy control individuals. We build a reference gene set for the cohort containing 2.69 million genes, 36.1% of which are novel. Quantitative metagenomics reveals(More)
Parkinson’s disease (PD), the second most common age-associated neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and the presence of α-synuclein-containing aggregates in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Chronic neuroinflammation is one of the hallmarks of PD pathophysiology. Post-mortem analyses of human PD(More)
Superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and ataxin-3 are two neurodegenerative disease proteins in association with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Machado-Joseph disease/spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. Both normal and mutant types of SOD1 and ataxin-3 are degraded by the proteasome. It was recently reported that these two proteins are associated with the(More)
Amblyopia is a developmental disorder that results in deficits of monocular and binocular vision. It is presently unclear whether these deficits result from attenuation of signals in the amblyopic eye, inhibition by signals in the fellow eye, or both. In this study, we characterize mechanisms underlying anisometropic amblyopia using a binocular phase and(More)
BACKGROUND How the visual system combines information from the two eyes to form a unitary binocular representation of the external world is a fundamental question in vision science that has been the focus of many psychophysical and physiological investigations. Ding & Sperling (2006) measured perceived phase of the cyclopean image, and developed a binocular(More)
Apomorphine, the catechol-derived dopamine D1/D2 receptor agonist, is currently in use as an antiparkinsonian drug. It has previously been reported that apomorphine was able to elicit expression of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker for DA neurons, in the fetal rat cerebrocortical cultures whilst in the presence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although treatments for PD may be beneficial in the early stages of disease, accurate diagnosis during these stages remains a challenge. An ideal diagnosis for PD should be highly specific and sensitive, as well as be able to predict disease(More)
Apomorphine (APO), a potent D1/D2 dopamine receptor agonist, is used as an anti-parkinsonian drug. It stimulates the synthesis and release of multiple trophic factors in mesencephalic and striatal neurons, preventing the loss of dopaminergic neurons in vitro. Furthermore, APO enhances the biosynthesis and release of FGF-2 by activating dopamine receptors in(More)
Using a suprathreshold binocular summation paradigm developed by J. Ding and G. Sperling (2006, 2007) for normal observers, we investigated suprathreshold cyclopean perception in anisometropic amblyopia. In this paradigm, two suprathreshold sinewave gratings of the same spatial frequency but different spatial phases are presented to the left and right eyes(More)
Mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons are critical for movement control and other physiological activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their development are poorly understood. We aimed to establish the expression profiles of genes involved in this process and unravel genetic programs that control late development of mDA neurons. We(More)