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Voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels are essential for the rapid depolarization of nerve and muscle, and are important drug targets. Determination of the structures of Na(v) channels will shed light on ion channel mechanisms and facilitate potential clinical applications. A family of bacterial Na(v) channels, exemplified by the Na(+)-selective channel of(More)
Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that regulates plant stress responses. Proteins from the PYR-PYL-RCAR family were recently identified as ABA receptors. Upon binding to ABA, a PYL protein associates with type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) such as ABI1 and ABI2, inhibiting their activity; the molecular mechanisms by which PYLs mediate ABA(More)
TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors, secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria, recognize host DNA sequences through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each repeat comprises 33 to 35 conserved amino acids and targets a specific base pair by using two hypervariable residues [known as repeat variable diresidues (RVDs)] at positions 12 and 13. Here, we(More)
Pattern recognition receptors confer plant resistance to pathogen infection by recognizing the conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The cell surface receptor chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1 of Arabidopsis (AtCERK1) directly binds chitin through its lysine motif (LysM)-containing ectodomain (AtCERK1-ECD) to activate immune responses. The(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana protein UVR8 is a photoreceptor for ultraviolet-B. Upon ultraviolet-B irradiation, UVR8 undergoes an immediate switch from homodimer to monomer, which triggers a signalling pathway for ultraviolet protection. The mechanism by which UVR8 senses ultraviolet-B remains largely unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of UVR8 at 1.8(More)
The melanoma antigen (MAGE) family consists of more than 60 genes, many of which are cancer-testis antigens that are highly expressed in cancer and play a critical role in tumorigenesis. However, the biochemical and cellular functions of this enigmatic family of proteins have remained elusive. Here, we identify really interesting new gene (RING) domain(More)
The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters are an ancient and widespread family of secondary active transporters. In Escherichia coli, the uptake of l-fucose, a source of carbon for microorganisms, is mediated by an MFS proton symporter, FucP. Despite intensive study of the MFS transporters, atomic structure information is only available on three(More)
Huntington's disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat in huntingtin (HTT) protein. We previously showed that calorie restriction ameliorated Huntington's disease pathogenesis and slowed disease progression in mice that model Huntington's disease (Huntington's disease mice). We now report that overexpression of(More)
In extremely acidic environments, enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli rely on the amino acid antiporter AdiC to expel protons by exchanging intracellular agmatine (Agm(2+)) for extracellular arginine (Arg(+)). AdiC is a representative member of the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily of membrane transporters. The structure of(More)