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Characterization of the ontogeny of the cerebral dopaminergic system is crucial for gaining a greater understanding of normal brain development and its alterations in response to drugs of abuse or conditions such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pharmacological MRI (phMRI) was used to determine the response to dopamine transporter (DAT) blockers(More)
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome which develops in patients with severe liver diseases and/or portal-systemic shunting. Minimal HE, the earliest manifestation of HE, has drawn increasing attention in the last decade. Minimal HE is associated with a series of brain functional changes, such as attention, working memory, and so on.(More)
The subcortical response to peripheral somatosensory stimulation is not well studied. Prior literature suggests that somatosensory stimulation can affect dopaminergic tone. We studied the effects of electrical stimulation near the median nerve on the response to an amphetamine-induced increase in synaptic dopamine. We applied the electrical stimulation(More)
UNLABELLED We studied the metabolic responses to different DA concentrations elicited by four doses of D-amphetamine (AMPH, 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg). We compared the degree of DA release (via microdialysis) with striatal cAMP activity and whole brain maps of cerebral blood volume (rCBV) changes (via pharmacological MRI, phMRI). RESULTS AMPH(More)
We aimed to test the feasibility of detecting gliosis in living brains when the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is disrupted. We designed a novel magnetic resonance (MR) probe that contains superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION, a T2 susceptibility contrast agent) linked to a short DNA sequence complementary to the cerebral mRNA of glial fibrillary(More)
Gene therapy holds exceptional potential for translational medicine by improving the products of defective genes in diseases and/or providing necessary biologics from endogenous sources during recovery processes. However, validating methods for the delivery, distribution and expression of the exogenous genes from such therapy can generally not be applicable(More)
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes play a critical role in controlling the catabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters and biogenic trace amines and behavior in humans. However, the mechanisms that regulate MAO are unclear. Several transcription factor proteins are proposed to modulate the transcription of MAO gene, but evidence supporting these hypotheses is(More)
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