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IGF-IR-mediated signaling promotes survival, anchorage-independent growth, and oncogenic transformation, as well as tumor growth and metastasis formation in vivo. NVP-AEW541 is a pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivative small molecular weight kinase inhibitor of the IGF-IR, capable of distinguishing between the IGF-IR (IC50 = 0.086 microM) and the closely(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been identified as a potent metabolic regulator. Administration of recombinant FGF21 protein to rodents and rhesus monkeys with diet-induced or genetic obesity and diabetes exerts strong antihyperglycemic and triglyceride-lowering effects and reduction of body weight. Despite the importance of FGF21 in the regulation(More)
In an effort to determine the effects of bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on exercise performance, ten male college swimmers were studied during five different trials. Each trial consisted of five 91.4m (100-yd) front crawl swims with a two-minute rest interval between each bout. The trials consisted of two NaHCO3 treatments, two placebo trials and one test(More)
Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma) regulates the perinatal switch to oxidative metabolism in the myocardium. We wanted to understand the significance of induction of ERRgamma expression in skeletal muscle by exercise. Muscle-specific VP16ERRgamma transgenic mice demonstrated an increase in exercise capacity, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and(More)
Type 2 diabetes is a polygenic disease which afflicts nearly 200 million people worldwide and is expected to increase to near epidemic levels over the next 10-15 years. Glucokinase (GK) activators are currently under investigation by a number of pharmaceutical companies with only a few reaching early clinical evaluation. A GK activator has the promise of(More)
The cytoprotective stress response factor HSF1 regulates the transcription of the chaperone HSP70, which exhibits anti-inflammatory effects and improves insulin sensitivity. We tested the therapeutic potential of this pathway in rodent models of diabetes using pharmacological tools. Activation of the HSF1 pathway was achieved using potent inhibitors of the(More)
Evidence has accumulated that activation of AMP kinase (AMPK) mediates the acute increase in glucose transport induced by exercise. As the exercise-induced, insulin-independent increase in glucose transport wears off, it is followed by an increase in muscle insulin sensitivity. The major purpose of this study was to determine whether hypoxia and(More)
Physiologic elevation of insulin levels induces a significant increase in muscle adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rate in normal individuals, indicative of an appropriate acceleration in mitochondrial activity. However, the stimulatory effect of insulin is diminished in insulin-resistant patients. In the absence of similar data from preclinical(More)
β-Endorphin (BE) infusion at rest can influence insulin and glucagon levels and thus may affect glucose availability during exercise. To clarify the effect of BE on levels of insulin, glucagon and glucose during exercise, 72 untrained male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused i.v. with either: (1) BE (bolus 0.05 mg · kg−1 +0.05 mg · kg−1 · h−1, n = 24); (2)(More)
Growing evidence supports the theory that mitochondrial dysfunction is an underlying cause of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation and insulin resistance. Here, we hypothesized that high dietary fat (HF) intake could trigger changes in mitochondrial activity such that fatty acid oxidation is impaired in muscle and contributes to an elevation in(More)