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The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1))(More)
This paper investigates the economic legacies of the Cultural Revolution in rural China. With its purported goals of tackling inequality and forestalling a " capitalist restoration, " the decade of 1966-1976 witnessed widespread violence, much of it directed towards the educated elite. Using a unique county-level dataset on collective killings, coupled with(More)
Inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1) is highly conserved from yeasts to humans. Upon the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, IRE1 activates X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) by unconventionally splicing XBP1 mRNA, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore ER homeostasis. In mice, IRE1α inactivity leads to embryonic death and IRE1α plays an(More)
Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide, while the anti-EV71 antibody responses other than neutralizing epitopes have not been characterized. In this study, EV71 capsid proteins VP1, VP3, VP0 and various VP1 antigens were constructed to analyze anti-EV71 response in severe HFMD cases,(More)
Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA) and protein G of groups C and G streptococci (SpG) are two well-defined bacterial immunoglobulin (Ig)-binding proteins (IBPs) with high affinity for specific sites on IgG from mammalian hosts. Both SpA and SpG contain several highly-homologous IgG-binding domains, each of which possesses similar binding characteristic(More)
Inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1) is highly conserved from yeasts to humans. Upon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, IRE1 activates X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) by unconventional splicing of XBP1 mRNA, which activates unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore ER homeostasis. In mice, IRE1α plays an essential role in extraembryonic tissues. However, its(More)
Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease worldwide. The non-neutralizing antibody response that targets CA16 VP1 remains poorly elucidated. In the present study, antibody responses against CA16 VP1 in Shanghai blood donors and Shanxi individuals were analyzed by ELISA and inhibitory ELISA using five(More)
The endosperm is a major organ of the seed that plays vital roles in determining seed weight and quality. However, genome-wide transcriptome patterns throughout maize endosperm development have not been comprehensively investigated to date. Accordingly, we performed a high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of the maize endosperm transcriptome at(More)
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