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To understand the basis of the resistance of pigeons to Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1, we examined the presence of influenza virus receptors, sialic acids linked to galactose by an alpha-2,3 linkage (SAalpha2,3Gal) or by an alpha-2,6 linkage (SAalpha2,6Gal), in respiratory and intestinal tracts of pigeons and(More)
To determine whether or not pigeons are susceptible to infection with Asian lineage highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 and can serve as a transmission host for H5N1 HPAIV, we experimentally infected 187 young and adult pigeons with five different isolates of H5N1 HPAIV and co-habited some experimentally infected pigeons with(More)
Eleven infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) strains isolated recently from China were compared with the early classical virulent strain CJ801, the chicken embryo fibroblast-adapted (CEF) variant strain GZ902, and the attenuated vaccine strains BJ836, BK912, and LM to discern the evolutionary characteristics of IBDV in China at both antigenic and genetic(More)
Two series of apigenin [5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one] derivatives, 3a-3j and 4a-4j, were synthesized. The apigenin and alkyl amines moieties of these compounds were separated by C₂ or C₃ spacers, respectively. The chemical structures of the apigenin derivatives were confirmed using ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, and electrospray ionization mass(More)
The seasonal spermatogenesis and localization of inhibin/activin subunits (alpha, betaA, betaB) in the testes of wild ground squirrel has been previously described; however, the expression pattern of activin receptors and cytoplasmic signaling SMADs has not been detected in any seasonal breeders. The objective of this study was to investigate the abundance(More)
Macroautophagy/autophagy has profound implications for aging. However, the true features of autophagy in the progression of aging remain to be clarified. In the present study, we explored the status of autophagic flux during the development of cell senescence induced by oxidative stress. In this system, although autophagic structures increased, the(More)
The aim of this study was to elucidate the regulatory role of androgen in the follicular development of wild female ground squirrels. Immunohistochemical staining of FSHR, LHR, P450c17, P450arom, androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors (ERa and ERb) were executed in ovaries of female ground squirrels from both breeding and nonbreeding seasons. In(More)
Using a connected dominating set (CDS) to serve as a virtual backbone of a wireless sensor network is an effective way to save energy and alleviate broadcasting storm. Since nodes may fail due to accidental damage or energy depletion, it is desirable to construct a fault tolerant CDS, which can be modeled as a k-connected m-fold dominating set ((k, m)-CDS(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling is commonly activated upon virus infection and has been implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular functions such as proliferation and apoptosis. The present study demonstrated for the first time that infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in(More)