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Human individuals were hypothesized to use the same pattern of jaw muscle activity to produce the same bite force. To test this hypothesis, we used a 2-mm-thick force transducer to monitor the magnitude and direction of a bite force between a single pair of occluding first molars. Five subjects performed standardized bite force tasks. Six different(More)
Muscle fatigue has been thought to be one of the causes of pain associated with temporomandibular disorders. A multitude of variables could contribute to neuromuscular fatigue when a subject attempts to sustain a given force. In studies of jaw muscles the endurance limit has been related to a failure in electrical conductivity (transmission fatigue), an(More)
Histochemical enzyme reactions and physiological recordings of limb and jaw muscles have independently revealed three to five types of muscle fibers. Surprisingly, type II fibers are smaller than type I fibers in major human jaw muscles. This is the opposite of the situation in limb muscles. Human jaw muscles contain mixed fiber types. Type I fibers(More)
The construction of a 2 mm-thick bite-force transducer, capable of measuring the magnitude and direction of a bite force in three dimensions, is described. The transducer is programmed to display the properties of a bite force on a computer monitor. A preliminary study was designed to test its performance. This took the form of endurance tests on three(More)
Previous studies have identified both linear and curvilinear relations between increasing bite-force magnitude and the integrated electromyogram (EMG) of jaw-closing muscles. In an attempt to explain the discrepancy, bite forces of incrementally increasing magnitude were produced on the right-hand side in five specified directions by eight humans. Linear(More)
The polymer matrix with introduced carbon-based nanofiber displays fascinating properties. They have inspired extensive research on the synthesis of polymer composites, which have been applied in catalysis, electronics, and energy storage. In this report, we reported a facile and efficient method to prepare poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole)(More)
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